Difference between revisions of "Adzamic"

From CWS Planet
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Severy moved page Old Adzamasi to Adzamic)
(was very ood)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{Infobox language
 
{{Infobox language
|name          = Old Adzamasi
+
|name          = Proto-Adzamic
 
|altname      =
 
|altname      =
|nativename    = Atäsamohtaäk
+
|nativename    = <nowiki>*</nowiki>Atäsamohtaäk
 
|pronunciation = ädəzämohtä:k
 
|pronunciation = ädəzämohtä:k
|states (state) = [[Adzamic Empire]]
+
|states (state) = Early [[Tabiqa]]
 
|region        = [[Ekuosia]]
 
|region        = [[Ekuosia]]
 
|latd  =  | latm  = | latNS  =  <!-- latitude degrees/minutes/direction -->
 
|latd  =  | latm  = | latNS  =  <!-- latitude degrees/minutes/direction -->
Line 13: Line 13:
 
|familycolor  = #ffddaa
 
|familycolor  = #ffddaa
 
|fam1          = [[Ekuo-Lahiri]]
 
|fam1          = [[Ekuo-Lahiri]]
|fam2 = Adzo-Neviric
+
|fam2 = [[Adzo-Neviric]]
|fam3 = Adzamic
+
 
|posteriori    =  
 
|posteriori    =  
 
|dia1          =  
 
|dia1          =  
Line 21: Line 20:
 
|nation        =  
 
|nation        =  
 
|agency        =  
 
|agency        =  
|iso3          =  
+
|iso3          = paz
 
|image        = Adzemp fleg.png
 
|image        = Adzemp fleg.png
 
|imagesize    =  
 
|imagesize    =  
Line 33: Line 32:
 
}}
 
}}
  
'''Old Adzamasi''' is the earliest attested form of the [[Adzamasi]] language. It was at first a dialect of a larger language called Macro-Adzamic which was spoken across much of the Ekuosian desert. Old Adzamic specifically arose in the Mehyaran area and later became the official language of the Adzamic Empire.
+
'''Proto-Adzamic''' is the reconstructed ancestor of the [[Adzamic languages]]. The [[Old Adzamian]] language is considered its immediate and main successor, as that language was spread
  
 
==Phonology==
 
==Phonology==
  
Adzamic had a fairly conventional phonology consisting of only oral vowels and pulmonic consonants, with no phonation distinction or secondary articulations at the phonemic level.  
+
Proto-Adzamic had a moderately-sized phonemic inventory with six vowels and 23 consonants (by most estimations).
  
 
===Consonants===
 
===Consonants===
Line 60: Line 59:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Plosive
 
! style="" |Plosive
| p  
+
| b p
 
|  
 
|  
| t
+
| d t
 
|  
 
|  
 
| k
 
| k
 
| q
 
| q
| ʔ
+
| ʔ <'>
 +
|-
 +
! style="" |Glottalic stops
 +
| pˀ
 +
|
 +
| tˀ
 +
|
 +
| kˀ
 +
| qˀ
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Fricative
 
! style="" |Fricative
| ɸ
+
| ɸ <f>
| þ
+
| θ <ŧ>
 
| s
 
| s
| ʃ
+
| ʃ <z>
 
| x
 
| x
 
| ħ
 
| ħ
Line 87: Line 95:
 
|}
 
|}
  
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 660px; text-align:center;"
+
Although most of the consonant phonemes are widely accepted by reconstructionists, there is some debate about the exact number and identity of these sounds.
! style="width: 68px; "|Allophones
+
 
! style="width: 68px; " |Bilabial
+
It is widely accepted that there were three different stop series, and generally that these differed in phonation or airstream mechanism. The most widely-accepted reconstruction uses voiced, voiceless, and ejective stops. Some prefer aspirated or creaky-voiced stops in place of ejectives. There is also debate about the presence of /p p' t'/, based on the extreme rarity of these sounds in early Old Adzamian, some of which could be explained as borrowings from [[Kavahiri]] or other neighbouring languages.
! style="width: 68px; " |Dental
+
 
! style="width: 68px; " |Alveolar
+
There is a less intense debate about the exact realization of several fricatives, and the velar approximant. /f/ is often substituted for *ɸ, /ç/ for *ʃ, and /χ/ for *ħ. A small number of authors posit that /χ ħ/ were both present as distinct phonemes in the language, but this is a minority view.
! style="width: 68px; " |Palatal
+
 
! style="width: 68px; " |Velar
+
Some sources prefer /w/, /ɣʷ/, or even /xʷ/ for *ɰ, although most of these authors agree that /ɰ~w/ also occurred as an allophone of /u/.
! style="width: 68px; " |Uvular
+
 
! style="width: 68px; " |Glottal
+
There may have been voiced allophones [g ɢ] of *k *q, and all or some of the fricatives, likely in intervocalic positions; these changes became phonemic in Old Adzamian.
|-
+
! style="" |Voiced
+
| b
+
|
+
| d
+
|
+
| g
+
| ɢ
+
|
+
|-
+
! style="" |Glottalized
+
| pˀ
+
|
+
| tˀ
+
|
+
| kˀ
+
| qˀ
+
|
+
|-
+
! style="" |Fricative
+
| β
+
| ð
+
| z
+
| ʒ
+
| ɣ
+
| ʕ
+
| ɦ
+
|}
+
  
 
===Vowels===
 
===Vowels===
Line 147: Line 127:
 
|  
 
|  
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
Some linguists prefer four placements with length distinction; /i i: u u:/ for *e *i *o *u. A small number also considers /a a:/ more accurate than *ə *a.
  
 
===Phonotactics===
 
===Phonotactics===
Syllable structure was very loose and all sorts of clusters occurred. Stops and fricatives would voice between vowels, glides, and/or nasals. Uvular~pharyngeal fricatives and glottal sounds became secondary glottalization on preceding consonants, which eventually lead to the development of Adzamasi ejectives.
+
Syllable structure was fairly loose and relatively large clusters occurred, especially medially.  
 
+
===Orthography===
+
The romanization of Adzamic is as IPA except: f for bilabial fricative; þ for dental fricative; w for velar approximant; and sometimes ä in place of schwa.
+
  
 
==Grammar==
 
==Grammar==
 
===Morphology===
 
===Morphology===
Adzamic was a fairly isolating language.
 
 
 
Nouns mark for animacy and number.
 
Nouns mark for animacy and number.
  

Revision as of 06:35, 16 August 2019

Proto-Adzamic
*Atäsamohtaäk
Flag of the Adzamic Empire
Flag of the Adzamic Empire
Pronunciationädəzämohtä:k
RegionEkuosia
EthnicityAdzamic
Native speakersExtinct  (470)
Language family
CWS codepaz

Proto-Adzamic is the reconstructed ancestor of the Adzamic languages. The Old Adzamian language is considered its immediate and main successor, as that language was spread

Phonology

Proto-Adzamic had a moderately-sized phonemic inventory with six vowels and 23 consonants (by most estimations).

Consonants

Phonemic Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive b p d t k q ʔ <'>
Glottalic stops
Fricative ɸ <f> θ <ŧ> s ʃ <z> x ħ h
Approximant l j ɰ

Although most of the consonant phonemes are widely accepted by reconstructionists, there is some debate about the exact number and identity of these sounds.

It is widely accepted that there were three different stop series, and generally that these differed in phonation or airstream mechanism. The most widely-accepted reconstruction uses voiced, voiceless, and ejective stops. Some prefer aspirated or creaky-voiced stops in place of ejectives. There is also debate about the presence of /p p' t'/, based on the extreme rarity of these sounds in early Old Adzamian, some of which could be explained as borrowings from Kavahiri or other neighbouring languages.

There is a less intense debate about the exact realization of several fricatives, and the velar approximant. /f/ is often substituted for *ɸ, /ç/ for *ʃ, and /χ/ for *ħ. A small number of authors posit that /χ ħ/ were both present as distinct phonemes in the language, but this is a minority view.

Some sources prefer /w/, /ɣʷ/, or even /xʷ/ for *ɰ, although most of these authors agree that /ɰ~w/ also occurred as an allophone of /u/.

There may have been voiced allophones [g ɢ] of *k *q, and all or some of the fricatives, likely in intervocalic positions; these changes became phonemic in Old Adzamian.

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e ə o
Open ä

Some linguists prefer four placements with length distinction; /i i: u u:/ for *e *i *o *u. A small number also considers /a a:/ more accurate than *ə *a.

Phonotactics

Syllable structure was fairly loose and relatively large clusters occurred, especially medially.

Grammar

Morphology

Nouns mark for animacy and number.

Verbs mark for proximity as the primary deixis (instead of time).

Syntax

Adzamic was a direct-inverse, hierarchical language, organized by a complex animacy system. It was generally head-initial.