Cananganamese language

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Native speakers41 million – 70 million  (2013)
Language family
CWS code

Cananganamese (Also called Canamic or Esmilly), is an Asuranesian language spoken predominantly in Cananganam and is spoken by a minority in Lhavres. It is the local prestige of Cananganam, having its place within classical nobility into today's Kuulist government promoting its use, where in recent years the Telibe dialect has seen an increase in use and standardization.





Urban Canamic

Most urban varieties of Cananganamese undergo what's locally defined as ḍajđe (Rising), where the zero-vowel /ə̯/ is typically pronounced as [ɪ], though other variations of this include [ʊ] and [e]. Commonly nasalization also occurs in these dialects though this is almost entirely allophonic with some exceptions which vary by dialect.

Other common features include reducing of the alveolar flap into a dental approximant as shown in the Telibe dialect:

nekkuren "Kav" /nəˈkːuˑɾən/ → [nɪˈkːuð̞ɪ̃]

rame "(1SG.MASC) would have launched..." /ˈɾæˑ.mə/ → [ˈð̞æ.mɐ]



Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Laryngeal
plain emphatic plain emphatic plain emphatic
Nasals m n
Stops voiceless t t͡ʃ k ʔ
voiced b d d͡ʒ g
Fricatives voiceless f θ s x h
voiced ð ðˤ z ɣ ʕ
Approximants ɾ (ɾˤ) j w
Laterals l (lˤ)

Emphatics Consonants

In Cananganamese, several consonants exhibit either uvular or pharyngealization. The most common of these sounds in Cananganamese is /dˤ/ which can be interpretted as either /d͡ʁ/ or /d͡ʕ/. This trend follows into the other emphatics, where allophonic formations occur as a result or clusters leading to some dialects having more emphatic consonants than is shown in the Standard.


Front Central Back
Mid ə
Open æˑ

Vowels in Cananganamese function at an almost minimalist level, as in the standard language there is only four vowels, though some linguists argue there are only three as /ə/ has almost no uniform pronunciation and is assumed to be a "zero-vowel". However, in most pronunciations it is typically voiceless unlike its longer, stressed counterparts. In some dialects, the vowel system is expanded to include /aj~əj/ [e] and /aw~əw/ [o].

However, the Distel dialect is reported to take the vowel inventory to the extreme with /iˑ/ and /æˑ/ merging to /ä/ with /u/ being analyzed as /ə~ɨ/.


Cananganamese is a synthetic language. Unlike the Littoro-Marianic languages it is distantly related to, Cananganamese has lost its Ergative-Absolutive features making it distinct from the family grammatically. What further divides it from its relatives is that it no retains the Fluid-S verbal morphology, entirely replacing the semantics of the morphology to be much closer to that of which is defined by time based verbal arguments.

The language features five cases; nominative, accusative, genitive, ablative (which acts as a dative), and locative. Other features include the usage of a definite particle, and its varied sentence formations. Typically the language is Subject-Verb-Object, however if pronomials are used, the syntax shifts into Verb-Object-Subject. Commonly, this causes confusion amongst new speakers, though typically in Colloquial dialects the sentence formation can vary from SVO to OSV.