Difference between revisions of "Coastal Jutean"

From CWS Planet
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m (fixed formatting)
m
 
(47 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{tone}}
{{Infobox language
{{Infobox language
|name          = Jutean
|name          = Jutean
|altname      = Coastal Jutean
|altname      = Coastal Jutean
|nativename    = Tahivi a net / Jute
|nativename    = Tahivi a net / Net
|pronunciation = /tahiʋi a net/ / /jute/
|pronunciation = /tɐhiʋi ɐ net/, /net/
|states (state) = Jute
|states (state) =  
|region        =  
|region        = Ystel ([[Jute]], [[South Jute]], [[Mermelia]]), Lahan ([[Tuyo]]), Vaniua ([[Balakia]]), Boroso ([[Lhavres]])
|latd  =  | latm  = | latNS  =  <!-- latitude degrees/minutes/direction -->
|latd  =  | latm  = | latNS  =  <!-- latitude degrees/minutes/direction -->
|longd =  | longm = | longEW =  <!-- longitude degrees/minutes/direction -->
|longd =  | longm = | longEW =  <!-- longitude degrees/minutes/direction -->
|ethnicity    = Coastal Juteans (native),  
|ethnicity    = Coastal Juteans (native), River Juteans, South Juteans, Klambari, Samwati (common second language)
River Juteans, Klambari, Samwati (common second language)
|speakers      = 1,570,000
|speakers      = 1,570,000
|date          =  
|date          = 2015
|familycolor  = saa
|familycolor  = tep
|fam1          = [[Saru-Asuran languages|Saru-Asuran]]
|fam1          = [[Trans-Ebo-Puzimm languages|Trans-Ebo-Puzimm]]
|fam2 = Proto-Jutic
|fam2 = Saru-Asuran
|fam3 = Ancient Jutean
|fam3 = Sanju-Jutean
|fam4 = Middle Jutean
|fam4 = Proto-Jutean
|fam5 = Reformed Jutean
|ancestor = Ancient Jutean
|fam6 = Colonial Jutean
|ancestor2 = Middle Jutean
|ancestor3 = Reformed Jutean
|ancestor4 = Colonial Jutean
|posteriori    =  
|posteriori    =  
|dia1          =  
|dia1          =  
|dialects      = Sitti, Laina
|dialects      = Sitti
|script        =  
|script        =  
|nation        = Jute
|nation        = [[Jute]]
|agency        =  
|agency        =  
|iso3          =  
|iso3          = JUT
|image        =  
|image        =  
|imagesize    =  
|imagesize    =  
|imagealt      =  
|imagealt      =  
|imagecaption  =  
|imagecaption  = Distribution on Island Jute
|imageheader  =  
|imageheader  =  
|map          = Languages of Jute.png
|map          = Languages of Jute.png
|mapsize      =  
|mapsize      = 200
|mapalt        =  
|mapalt        =  
|mapcaption    =
|mapcaption    =
}}
}}


==Background==
Coastal Jutean, commonly known as Jutean, is a language of the Jutic branch of the Saru-Asuran language family, itself part of the [[Trans-Ebo-Puzimm_languages|Trans-Ebo-Puzimm macrofamily]], spoken on the island of [[Jute]] as the official language and by 1,270,000 people as their native language as well as in several diasporas around the world, such as in [[South Jute]], [[Balakia]] and [[Lhavres]]. Coastal Jutean is not to be confused with River Jutean, a related, but distinct language spoken mostly inland on the island.
 
===Origin and goal===
Started out as a language developed for a nation on Nationstates (a political simulator and rp platform for nation-rps). It can be found at nationstates.net/jute. The goal was (and is) to create a language that can be used for most purposes and that at least short texts can easily be translated to it to give the nation more depth.
 
===Setting and inspiration===
Since it's a tropical island and I had gotten interested in Hawaii and Hawaiian, the compact phonology is inspired by it, though of course with some changes. For example, it lacks the glottal stop, but has a /j/ and a /ʋ/.  


===Peculiarities===
It is assumed to have developed after the first ancestors of present day ethnic Juteans arrived at the island at around 1000 BC. The people remaining on the coast would eventually speak what is today referred to as Jutean, or Coastal Jutean (<small>Jutean:</small> ''tahivi a net''), whereas the people venturing inside would develop River Jutean (<small>River Jutean:</small> ''tahosoe val ma'', /taho͡asoɛ vɐl mɐ/). It had no official status until after Jute regained independence in , during and prior to the colonial era it was just one of the languages spoken on the island, albeit the most widely spoken one.
To make sure the language doesn't up being to similar to Indo-European ones, the Austronesian alignment from Tagalog was adopted, adjectives as a separate part of speech dropped, as well as marked tense, articles, and number (except for pronouns). Later on, separate voices were dropped in favor of triggers.


Possessive pronouns were excluded, too, in an effort to show the different concepts of the speakers of the language regarding ownership. A genitive-like construction is solely used for inalienable possession, for alienable ones relative nominalizations are used, such as "the land I live on", or "the boat I'm sailing" rather than "my land" or "my boat".
It is notable for its use of the Austronesian alignment, its lack of adjectives as a separate part of speech, and the absence of marked tense, aspect or number (with the exception of numbers in pronouns). Triggers or intransitive sentences are also used for passive meanings.  


The language has three genders, or noun classes. Common, abstract/immaterial and "wilderness". Common includes everything related to daily life in a village or city, humans, and things made by humans. Abstract/immaterial is largely self-explaining, used for ideas and concepts, intangible as well as unknown things or sometimes for generic terms. "Wilderness" includes everything that has to do, or can be found with the jungle, the ocean or anything else seen as "wild". This includes animals, plants as well as some inanimate items. It can also be used in a more poetic way, for example for the subconscious, the "wild, untamed" part of the mind.
Personal pronouns, while having the standard 1st/2nd/3rd person, are unusual in other regards. There are three numbers (arguably four in the first person plural), clusitivity, gender and animacy distinctions.


Personal pronouns, while having the standard 1st/2nd/3rd person, are unusual when it comes to other aspects. There are three numbers (arguably four in 1P), clusitivity, gender and animacy distinctions. See below, 3.6 Pronouns.
The language also lacks possessive pronouns, reflecting the different concepts of the speakers of the language regarding ownership. A genitive-like construction is solely used for inalienable possession, for alienable ones relative nominalizations are used, such as "the land I live on", or "the boat I'm sailing" rather than "my land" or "my boat".


<!-- Design goals, inspiration, ideas, who speaks it?, when was it created?, where does it come from?, any peculiarities? -->
<!-- Design goals, inspiration, ideas, who speaks it?, when was it created?, where does it come from?, any peculiarities? -->
Line 65: Line 57:


-->
-->
==Family and origin==
''This section is empty.''


<!-- ***Phonology*** -->
==History==
<!-- What sounds does your language use? -->
''This section is empty.''
<!-- Here are some example sub-/other categories:


Vowel inventory
===Ancient Jutean===
Consonant inventory
 
Syllable structure
===Middle Jutean===
Stress
 
Intonation
===Reformed Jutean===
 
===Colonial-era Jutean===
 
===Modern-day Jutean===


-->
==Phonology==
==Phonology==
===Consonants===
===Consonants===
Line 222: Line 218:
'''Syllable Structure'''
'''Syllable Structure'''


(C)V(V)(V/C), though CVC, CVVC and particularly CVVV are used sparingly. CV or VC are preferred.
(C)V(V)(V/C), though V, CV and VC are most common. More complex syllables such as CVC, CVVC appear less often and particularly CVVV is rare.


Consonant clusters can thus only appear at syllable boundaries, and only the geminations of /t/, /k/, /m/, /n/ and /l/ as well as two-consonant clusters starting with /n/, /m/ or /l/ are allowed.
Consonant clusters can thus only appear at syllable boundaries, and only the geminations of /t/, /k/, /m/, /n/ and /l/ as well as two-consonant clusters starting with /n/, /m/ or /l/ are allowed.
Line 228: Line 224:
VV are either long vowels or vowel diphthongs, and VVV are long diphthongs.
VV are either long vowels or vowel diphthongs, and VVV are long diphthongs.


===Stress information===
Mostly on the penultimate syllable, sometimes on the last syllable with a long vowel/diphtong, but it's not fixed and can also be used to emphasize a part of a word, for example the negating suffix '-l' or '-al'.
===Intonation===
''This section is empty.''
==Orthography==
''This section requires expansion: Information on the orthography of non-Terminic scripts missing''


'''Stress information'''
The predominant writing system used for Jutean is a native syllabary independent from, but loosely inspired by native proto-writing and the Adzo-Neviric script brought by Neviran officials in the 17th century, which had been the first people to introduce writing on Jute. It was developed in the 18th century as a form of cultural resistance to Neviran officials to prevent further assimilation and distinguish the native languages more clearly.  
Mostly on the penultimate syllable, sometimes on the last syllable with a long vowel/diphtong, but it's not fixed and can also be used to emphasize a part of a word, for example the negating suffix '-l' or '-al'.
 
The romanization is as follows:


===Orthography===
'''Aa''' /a/ '''Dd''' /d/ '''Ee''' /e/ '''Ff''' /f/ '''Hh''' /h/ '''Ii''' /i/ '''Jj''' /j/ '''Kk''' /k/
'''Aa''' /a/ '''Dd''' /d/ '''Ee''' /e/ '''Ff''' /f/ '''Hh''' /h/ '''Ii''' /i/ '''Jj''' /j/ '''Kk''' /k/


'''Ll''' /l/ '''Mm''' /m/ '''Nn''' /n/, /ŋ/ '''Oo''' /ɑ/ '''Ss''' /s/, /ʃ/ '''Tt''' /t/ '''Uu''' /u/ '''Vv''' /ʋ/
'''Ll''' /l/ '''Mm''' /m/ '''Nn''' /n/, /ŋ/ '''Oo''' /ɑ/ '''Ss''' /s/, /ʃ/ '''Tt''' /t/ '''Uu''' /u/ '''Vv''' /ʋ/


First word of a sentence has a capital letter, as do names.  
Capital letters are only used for the beginning of a sentence and for names.


==Morphology==
==Morphology==
 
''Main article: [[Jutean inflection]]''
To be expanded.
<!-- How do the words in your language look? How do you derive words from others? Do you have cases? Are verbs inflected? Do nouns differ from adjectives? Do adjectives differ from verbs? Etc. -->


===Nouns===
===Nouns===
Nouns belong to one of three noun classes. The first one is generally termed the 'common' or 'civilization' noun class and entails people, professions, domesticated or harmless animals and physical, everyday things, such as ''dova'' (tree). The second one is the 'abstract' or 'immaterial' noun class and contains all intangible items, ideas, concepts, such as 'dovi' (height) It is also used for much of space vocabulary and for some general terms.  The third noun class is labeled 'wilderness', words related to the jungle, the ocean, or other 'wild' places, physical and metaphorical (e.g. the subconscious) belong to it, such as 'dovu' (jungle tree).
However, there are words that don't find this pattern due to having a particular noun class for etymological reasons, such as 'dovi' (tower) which is derived from 'dovi' (height) and so retains the immaterial/abstract noun class.


Nouns have a gender and decline for three cases, with some exceptions.
Three cases exist, the unmarked direct case for subjects, the indirect case for direct objects and oblique objects designating a location, and the oblique case for all other oblique objects. They are marked by suffixes or, in the case of longer words, with particles. Some nouns do not decline, such as adjectical nouns, or do not in specific circumstances, e.g. in names of languages or temporal adverbial phrases.
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 660px; text-align:center;"
! style="width: 68px; "|Gender
! style="width: 68px; " |Common
! style="width: 68px; " |Abstract (-i)
! style="width: 68px; " |Wilderness (-u)
|-
! style="" |Noun
|dova (tree)
|dovi (tower, height)
|dovu (jungle tree)
|-
|}
 
Gender is mostly predictable if you either know the meaning of a word or the spelling of it, however not all words ending in -i are of the "abstract" gender, nor are all nouns of that gender ending in -i, and the same is true for the other two classes.
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 660px; text-align:center;"
! style="width: 68px; "|Case
! style="width: 68px; " |Direct
! style="width: 68px; " |Indirect
! style="width: 68px; " |Oblique
|-
! style="" |ending in consonant
|dovan (forest)
|dovaniti
|dovanede
|-
! style="" |ending in vowel
|saini (person, mind)
|sainiti
|sainide
|-
|}
 
 
The direct case more or less equals the absolutive or nominative (depending on the trigger used, see below for more information regarding them), where as indirect and oblique roughly correspond with the direct and indirect object respectively, however they can also have other functions. Most notably, words answering the question "where to?" need the indirect case, whereas the oblique one is used for inalienable possession, relationship or authorship.


===Adjectives===
===Adjectives===
Adjectives do not exist as a distinct part of speech in Jutean, and instead adjectival nouns and stative verbs are used. While stative verbs (such as ''ildeso'', 'be sure/strict') morphologically and syntactically function like other unergative verbs and are used as such, adjectival nouns are added, together with the preposition ''a'' (here: 'of') to a noun like an oblique object, but do not get the oblique case suffix, as in ''dovi a nihaa'', 'old tower' or literally 'tower of oldness'.


They don't have a distinct morphology and are seen as nouns. The only difference is that most adjectival nouns don't decline, like for example ''haad'' "bigness".
Intensification is done with the adverb ''haad'' (here: 'much'), and comparative and superlative are in the case of stative verbs formed with the adverbs ''haade'' (more) and ''haadate'' (most), whereas adjectival nouns take another oblique phrase, ''a haada'' (of biggerness) or ''a haadat'' (of biggestness), with the exception of ''haad'' (here: 'bigness'), ''uke'' (goodness), ''dohaa'' (badness), which have their own irregular comparative and superlative forms. Additionally, the superlative can be augmented further with the 'archetypive', reserved for something that is seen as the perfect embodiment of a particular quality or characteristic, i.e. an archetype.
 
To intensify them, a haada "of biggerness", is used, so hohi a haada would translate to "very new" (literally "newness of biggerness"). An exception would be "very big", where just haada would be used.
 
Comparative of a adjectival noun is formed by adding a haada "of biggerness", and either hehe "still, even" to the end of the sentence, or adding a construction with ehe "than", like for example: No ta a nihaa a haada ehe he na "I am older than you" (literally "I am of oldness of biggerness than you")
 
The superlative is constructed with a haadat "of biggestness" after it, as in Nuno ta an mihonode a nihaa a haadat. "I live in the oldest house" ("I live in the house of oldness of biggestness")
 
===Negation===
 
Negation of a noun or verb is formed by adding -l (if the word ends in a vowel) or -al (if the word ends in a consonant) to the end of the word. If the verb already has a mood or trigger suffix, the 'al' particle is postponed instead. This can also be done with nouns with a case ending or gerund forms, however it is also possible to add -l to the end (however this is somewhat uncommon with declined nouns)


===Verbs===
===Verbs===
Verbs in Jutean (always ending in ''-o'') are usually sorted into two (or three, or four) categories, objectless (the more scientific term being unaccusative or unergative), and split (or ergative). Object-taking or transitive verbs are not always classified as a separate verb class.
Verbs in Jutean (always ending in ''-o'') are usually sorted into two main categories, minor (always intransitive verbs such as unergative and many unaccusative verbs) and major verbs (which can be both transitive and intransitive), as Jutean has a mixed morphosyntactic alignment combining split-S ergativity with the Austronesian alignment. Aside from the two main categories, there is a smaller category of “mixed” verbs that combines characteristics of the two main categories, and a number of verbs that are syntactically irregular.
 
The first category refers to verbs which, like their name implies, take no object, are therefore always intransitive, and in addition usually imply at least a vague sense of agency. These are usually verbs of motion, like ''to'' ('go'), ''ato'' ('come') or static, like ''nisaido'' ('feel energized'), though there are some other ones, like ''mihinido'' ('sleep') or ''moo'' ('meditate'). Unaccusative verbs (agent-lacking ones) are also usually in this category, such as no ('live, exist').
Of course these can all still use adverbs, as in ''to li tan'' ('to go to my home').
These also can't ever convey a passive meaning, aside from more convoluted constructions such as ''noitono mihinido'' ('be made to sleep', literally 'be lead to sleep), which use a patient suffix as a trigger on an auxiliary verb, but more on that later.
 
The second, 'split' or 'ergative' variety refers to more complicated ones. These can both stand in objectless (intransitive) sentences as well as sentences with objects (transitive ones), and depending on which is used convey either a passive or active meaning, similar to for example the English verb to break in The door broke and I broke the door. An example in Jutean would be ''hemo'' ('to eat'), where ''Hemo fal'' would translate to 'They are all eaten', but ''Hemo fal kiove'' would mean 'They all eat something'.
 
The third one, called 'transitive', covers the verbs who always need an object, such as to learn about. These are rare and often homonyms or additional meanings of ergative verbs, so they aren't always seen as a distinct category. A lot of secondary meanings of ''daho'' (base intransitive meaning: 'to have space'), such as 'to accommodate', 'to make room', to name a few, are transitive.
 
Finally, the fourth category is often essentially a combination of the first and second one. These verbs are called 'mixed' and behave like unergative ones in some circumstances, but ergatively in other ones. For example, ''atteo'' ('to run into, to crash') is an unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns ''uvu/uvuf'' or the inanimate ones ''aha/ehi/uhu'' or ''ahaf/ehif/uhuf''). However, like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive.
 
Other verbs, like ''ilhoko'' (primary meaning: 'to ban, outlaw') undergo a different grammatical change in intransitive sentences with sapient actors (i.e. ''ilhoko ta'' in comparison to e.g. ''ilhoko ji'' 'this is outlawed' or ''ilhoko ta ji'' 'I outlawed this'), where the default voice changes from middle to reflexive, e.g. 'to outlaw' becomes 'outlaw oneself', which is then understood to mean 'to break the law'. Thus the aforementioned ''ilhoko ta'' would translate as 'I outlaw myself' or 'I break the law'.
 
'''''Aspects'''''
 
Several exist: habitual, progressive/continuous and perfective are the most common ones. They are usually indicated by adverbs, but sometimes verbs or nouns can also be used for that.
 
'''''Moods'''''
 
There are five: Indicative, Imperative, Conditional, Subjunctive and Hortative.
 
'''Indicative'''
 
Used for describing reality, general truths and statements proven or, based on some kind of evidence, very likely to be true. It is the default mood and has no suffix.
 
[[File:Indicative_examples.png]]
 
'''Imperative'''
 
For commands and urges. It is formed by reduplicating the first two syllables of the infinitive, however some verbs are irregular here and only reduplicate part of the second syllable.  The personal pronoun can be omitted in this case, or included for emphasis or clarification.
 
[[File:Imperative_examples.png]]
 
'''Conditional'''


In Jutean it's used for the hypothetical result of an assumed change in conditions of the world, or, in some cases, for the polite expression of instructions or wishes you don't have much confidence or interest in becoming reality or that are more or less impossible. It's generally seen as the "humble" mood used when talking to someone of high respect or someone you just like that much. It can also be used for exaggerations that are supposed to be a proof of that or just joking.
Triggers (agentive, patientive, locative and instrumental), as well as voices (active, antipassive, causative, reciprocal and reflexive) and moods (indicative, imperative, conditional, subjunctive, hortative) are usually marked by suffixes or in some cases with particles.
Formed by adding -ke to the end of the infinitive, which becomes -k in front of words starting with 'h' or in front of verbal particles.
 
[[File:Conditional_examples.png]]
 
'''Subjunctive'''
 
Among other things used for energetic proposals, declarations, resolutions, or wishes you have absolute or near absolute faith in becoming true at some point or the time you mentioned. Also a more polite way to command someone to do something.
Formed from infinitives with the -t suffix
 
[[File:Subjunctive_examples.png]]
 
'''Hortative'''
 
This mood can often be seen as being somewhere between the two last ones, used for example for unbinding, but nevertheless assertive or affirmative suggestions, reminders or instructions. This would be translated into English with an auxiliary like "let" or "should".
Formed with the -fe suffix attached to the infinitive.
 
[[File:Hortative_examples.png]]
 
'''''Triggers'''''
 
Since Jutean has the Austronesian alignment, it uses triggers to mark the focus of a sentence. These can also be used to express what other languages use voices or cases at nouns for.
 
To put it shortly, triggers are used in transitive sentences to signify a change in the morphosyntactic alignment from nominative-accusative or ergative-absolutive or vice versa, or highlight specific objects.
 
The two most common triggers are patient (-no), agent (unmarked by default, but -mo can be used to emphasize/intensify). Instrumental (-de) and Locative (-hen) exist, but are rather uncommon. They are all also attached to the verb, unless it already has mood or gerundive marking. (See chapter "Suffixation" for more information)
 
Examples for the ergative verb ''joo'' (to see)
''Joo ta ja.'' 'I see this.'
See 1S this.C
 
''Joono ja he ta.'' 'This is seen by me / This is what I see'
See-PV this.C IDR 1S
 
''Joode dovauhi he ta.'' 'The glasses are what I use to see.'
See.INSV glass IDR 1S
 
''Joohen saanu he ta.'' 'The sea is where I see.'
See.LOCV sea IDR 1S
 
 
'''''Valency and transitivity'''''
 
Valency can be used to express subject and object role in Jutean.
 
In intransitive sentences the meaning is by default understood as patientive. Here the agentive trigger/suffix -mo, otherwise used, as mentioned before in, in transitive sentences for emphasis, is used to make the subject agentive.
 
''Joo ta.'' 'I am seen.'
See 1S
 
''Joomo ta.'' 'I see.'
See-AV 1S
 
The instrumental and locative trigger-suffixes are also repurposed and can be used to make an intransitive sentence have an implied impersonal subject:
 
''Mihinidohen mihinon.'' 'The bed is where you sleep/one sleeps'
sleep-LOCV bed
 
''Joohen maja.'' 'The eye/Eyes is/are with what you see/one sees.'
see-LOCV eye
 
On the other side, the opposite is true for transitive sentences, where the subjects are by default agentive. As an alternative to turning it intransitive to make it have a patientive meaning as well, the patient trigger -no, as mentioned above, can be used as well.
 
'''''Voices'''''
 
How many voices Jutean has is up to discussion. Colloquially, all inflections that aren't moods, negations or gerund forms have been called triggers.
 
However, technically the triggers only refer to focus-changing inflections in transitive sentences, so causative (-vo), reciprocal (-hut) and reflexive (-he) "triggers" should more properly be analyzed as voices.
 
''Joovo ta he na'' 'I'm making you see.'
See-CAUS.trigger 1S IDR 2S
 
''Joohut fa'' 'We all see each other'
See.RECP 3.COL.INCL
 
''Joohe fa'' 'We all see ourselves'
See.REFL 3.COL.INCL
 
 
In addition, the intransitive agentive suffix -mo is usually regarded as an antipassive by my most grammarians nowadays, with some of the confusion stemming probably from the fact that it is also used in transitive sentences as an intensifier/emphasizing particle for agentive subjects.
 
 
'''''Gerund'''''
 
A gerund form exists, formed via suffixing ''-hi'', and used to create nominalized subclauses. (See below)
 
'''''Suffixation'''''
 
If multiple suffixes would have to be added, for example mood and trigger or trigger and negation, only one of them is attached to the verb, with the other ones forming a particle. Which one is added to the verb is decided based on their position in this order: Mood < Trigger < Gerund suffix < Negation, meaning that if a mood morpheme is present, it will be the one added to the verb, with the other one or two forming a particle. If only the trigger and the negation are present, the trigger will be attached and the negation become a particle directly after the verb.


===Adverbs===
===Adverbs===
 
Adverbs do not decline and are among other things often used to indicate the aspect of a verb.
To follow.


===Pronouns===
===Pronouns===


Personal pronouns are rather complex, and some forms are thought to be almost unique to Jutean. The inanimate pronouns are gendered, the 3rd person pronoun referring to humans (and other sentient beings) however doesn't make distinctions.
====Personal pronouns====
 
Personal pronouns are rather complex, and some forms are thought to be almost unique to Jutean. The inanimate pronouns are gendered (common, abstract/immaterial, 'wilderness'), the 3rd person pronoun referring to humans (and other sentient beings) however doesn't make distinctions.


{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 660px; text-align:center;"
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 660px; text-align:center;"
Line 439: Line 275:
! style="width: 68px; " |2nd
! style="width: 68px; " |2nd
! style="width: 68px; " |3rd
! style="width: 68px; " |3rd
! style="width: 68px; " |3rd (plants and animals)
! style="width: 68px; " |3rd <small>(plants and animals)</small>
! style="width: 68px; " |3rd (inanimate)
! style="width: 68px; " |3rd <small>(inanimate, gender)</small>
|-
|-
! style="" |Singular
! style="" |Singular
Line 450: Line 286:
|-
|-
! style="" |Plural
! style="" |Plural
|fa (incl.), fanal (excl. of 2SG),  
|fa <small>(incl.)</small>, fanal (<small>excl. a single person)</small>,  
fanafal  
fanafal <small>(excl. several people)</small>
(excl. of 2PL)
|naf
|naf
|laf
|laf
|uvuf
|uvuf
|ehif, ahaf, ohuf
|ahaf, ehif, ohuf
|-
|-
! style="" |Collective
! style="" |Collective
|fa (incl.) fafanal (excl.)
|fa <small>(incl.)</small> fafanal <small>(excl. of a group)</small>
|fan
|fan
|fal
|fal
|uvuf, (fuvu)
|uvuf, fuvu <small>(rarely)</small>
|ehif, ahaf, ohuf (a af/efi/uf)  
|ahaf, ehif, ohuf (a af/efi/uf)  
|-
|-
|}
|}
Colloquially and in dialects like Sitti, ''aha, ehi, ohu'' might be used for both singular and plural, and ''af, efi, uf'' for collective and in some cases also plural.


For the indirect case, the particle he is put in front of the pronoun, for the oblique case the circumferential particle me ... ma is used.  
For the indirect case, the particle he is put in front of the pronoun, for the oblique case the circumferential particle me ... ma is used.  


Example: ''ta'' '''I'''
Example: ''ta'' - 'I'
 
''he ta'' '''me, to me'''
 
''me ta ma'' '''for me, of me, by me''' (etc.)


''(li) he ta'' - 'me, (to) me'


'''Demonstrative pronouns'''
''(nuhe) me ta ma, (a) me ta ma'' - '(for) me, (of) me, (by) me' (etc.)


====Demonstrative pronouns====
They are distinguished by gender and distance (proximal, medial and distal).
They are distinguished by gender and distance (proximal, medial and distal).


Line 484: Line 319:
! style="width: 68px; " |Common
! style="width: 68px; " |Common
! style="width: 68px; " |Abstract/Immaterial
! style="width: 68px; " |Abstract/Immaterial
! style="width: 68px; " |Wilderness
! style="width: 68px; " |'Wilderness'
|-
|-
! style="" |Proximal
! style="" |Proximal
Line 503: Line 338:
|}
|}


Possessive pronouns don't exist. See "Possession" below on how possession is expressed.
===Possessive pronouns===
 
Possessive pronouns don't exist. Instead, ''a'' + personal pronoun in the oblique case are used for inalienable possession. Inalienable possession is limited to (body) parts, family members and friends, as well as thoughts, feelings, actions and experiences. Some other kinds of relationship or authorship can also be indicated with this construction.  
Other pronouns to follow.
 
===Adpositions===
 
These can sometimes be gendered as well, for example ''ado/ido/udo'' '''at, by''', etc.  


''Vunam a he laf ha'' 'Their parent'<br />
<small>("Parent of them")</small>


===Question particles===
''Hotif a he ta ha'' 'My book' [a book that I wrote]<br />
<small>("Book of me")</small>


To form a question, these are attached at the end of a sentence, separated by a comma. They are usually formed by taking the basic particle ''haa'' and adding the thing/concept/detail in question to it, however making new forms "on the fly" is uncommon and very informal.
''Ova a vuhatatede'' 'The top of the mountain'<br />
<small>("Top of mountain")</small>


Examples:
For everything else, alienable possession is used, which is formed with a relative nominalization describing the situation or relationship between one or more persons and animals (when not treated as friends or family members), objects, jobs, offices, places.


''haaja/-ji/-ju'' '''"what?"'''
''Vailita a vohi a me ta ma'' 'Vehicle that I use'<br />
''haan'' '''"where?"'''
<small> Vehicle of use-GER of OBL 1S OBL ''('Vehicle of using of me')''</small>
''haasin'' '''"who?"'''
''hasooni'' '''"when?"'''
''haava'' '''"made of what?"'''
''haatoni'' '''"how?"'''
''haano'' '''"why?"'''


===Derivational morphology===
''Hotif a fuumohi a me ta ma'' 'Book that I read'<br />
<small>Book of read-GER of OBL 1S OBL ''('book of reading of me')''</small>


In general, these affixes can be used to derive nouns from other nouns or verbs. For adverbs, ''-e'' is usually added to the end, while verbs take ''-o'' or ''-ho'', barring some exceptions.
''Nijauva a sehukohi a vunamede'' 'Cat that parent(s) care for'<br />
<small>Cat of care-GER of parent-OBL ''('cat of caring of parent(s)')''</small>


===Adpositions===
These can sometimes be gendered as well, for example ''ado/ido/udo'' 'at, by', etc. and come mostly in front of the noun, although some postpositions, e.g. ''todentije'' ('next'), exist as well.


'''Gender-changing derivations'''
===Question particles===
 
To form a question, question particles are attached at the end of a sentence, separated by a comma. They basic particle is ''haa'' and used for yes/no questions. Other questions use particles that consist of the basic form and a suffix, noun or pronoun (depending on what is being asked). While most are well established, occasionally new ones are derived on the spot in informal speech or writing.
''-a'' Generic noun suffix for common, physically existing things not related to the wilderness. Derived from the ending of most Common-gender nouns, ''-a''
 
Known synonymous suffixes: (tba)


Examples:
Examples:
''donosani'' 'experience' → ''donosana'' 'experienced person'
''niooni'' 'dream' → ''nioona'' 'picture, illustration'


''-i'' Generic noun suffix for immaterial and/or abstract things, ideas, concepts etc., also used for some generic nouns and for deriving nouns from verbs. Derived from the ending of most Abstract/Immaterial-gender nouns, ''-i''.
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 660px; text-align:center;"
|-
! Question particle !! Constituents !! Translation
|-
| ''haaja/haaji/haaju'' || ''haa'' + demonstrative || 'What/Which (one)?'
|-
| ''haan'' || ''haa'' + place suffix || 'Where?'
|-
| ''haasin'' || ''haa'' + 'saini' (person/people) || 'Who?'
|-
| ''hasooni' || ''haa'' + ''dooni'' (time) || 'When?'
|-
| ''haava'' || ''haa'' + ''va'' (here: material) || 'Made of what?'
|-
| ''haatoni'' || ''haa'' + ''toni'' (way, method) || 'How?'
|-
| ''haano'' || ''haa'' + ''no'' (to be) || ''Why?''
|}


Known synonymous suffixes: ''-hi'' (particularly used when the word already ends in ''-i'')
===Negation===
Negation of a noun, verb, adverb or adposition is formed by adding -l (if the word ends in a vowel) or -al (if the word ends in a consonant) to the end of the word. If the verb already has a mood or trigger suffix, the 'al' particle is postponed instead. This can also be done with declined nouns or gerund forms, and is in fact commonly the case with the former.


Examples:
===Derivational morphology===
''nesano'' 'to know' → ''nesani'' 'knowledge, knowing'
''Main article: [[Jutean derivation]]''
''vuha'' 'sun' → ''vuhi'' 'light'
 
''-u'' Generic noun suffix for all wilderness-related things that physically exist, such as things to be found in jungles, oceans or other worlds, sometimes also outer space. Also has a few metaphorical uses. Derived from the ending of most Wilderness-gender nouns, ''-u''
 
Known synonymous suffixes: (tba)
 
Examples:
''dova'' 'tree' → ''dovu'' 'jungle tree'
''saini'' 'mind, person, people' → ''sainu'' 'instinct, subconscious'
 
 
'''Changes in size or mightiness'''
 
''-at'' General augmentative suffix, mostly quantitative. Derived from ''haadat'', "biggestness"
 
Known synonymous suffixes: ''-aha'', ''-haa'', ''-haad'', ''-ahad''
 
Examples:
''saanu'' 'sea' → ''saanuahad'' 'ocean, ocean surface'
''seda'' 'pot' → ''sedaat'' 'cauldron'
 
''-it'' Qualitative augmentative suffix, used when something exceeds something else in a defining quality, for example "magnifying glass" → "microscope". Derived from combining ''-at'' with ''-i''.
 
Known synonymous suffixes: ''-at'' (rarely)
 
Examples:
''vunojahivo'' 'magnifying glass' → ''vujahivit'' 'microscope'
''dooni'' 'time' → ''doonat'' 'special occasion, celebration'
 
''-fi'' General diminutive suffix. Etymology unclear.
 
Known synonymous suffixes: ''-fe'' (when used with adverbs), ''-ihame'' (for persons, rare, no longer productive), ''-ila''/''-ilu''/''-ili'' (gendered variants, rare, no longer productive)
 
Examples:
''dooni'' 'time' → ''doonifi'' 'moment'
''favefa'' 'meal, dish' → ''favefafi'' 'snack'
 
 
'''Instrumentals and resultatives'''
 
''-ivo'' General instrumental suffix, for things that are needed or very useful for something. Probably related to ''vo'' 'use'
 
Example:
''hotio'' 'to write, be written' → ''hotivo'' 'pen, quill, writing implement'
 
''vaili-'' Tool or machine derivation prefix, used for tools or machines that, rather than making a job easier, complete it for the most part themselves, like soap vs. washing machine.
 
Example:
''to'' 'to go' → ''vailita'' 'vehicle'
 
To be expanded.
 
'''Resultatives and causatives'''
 
''-efa'' 'Resultative' derivation suffix, used to derive results from dynamic verbs. Assumed to be related to the causative 'trigger' vo, possibly in combination with ''a'' 'of, about, by'
 
Known synonymous affixes: ''-eefa''
 
Examples:
''favo'' 'to cook' → ''favefa'' 'meal, dish'
''to'' 'to go' → ''tefa'' 'destination'
''vano'' 'to burn' → ''vaneefa'' 'ash, residue from fire'
 
''-fo'' Causative verb derivation suffix, used to derive dynamic verbs from a noun. Probably related to the causative trigger ''vo'', similar to the resultative derivation suffix ''-efa'' (see above)


Example:
In general, affixes and compounding are used for derivation. For adverbs, ''-e'' is usually added to the end, while verbs take ''-o'' or ''-ho'', barring some exceptions. Nouns have a variety of possible derivation affixes that can be used to change the gender or noun class of a noun, to create diminutives or augmentatives, instrumentals, resultatives, causatives and create words denoting e.g. ability, agency, and many other characteristics.
''vuhi'' 'light' → ''vuhefo'' 'to lighten (deliberately)'
 
''-vo'' Causative verb derivation suffix for a derivation from another verb, similar in function to the causative 'trigger' and identical with the form it has. Used especially with unergative verbs that don't allow it being used.
 
Example:
''to'' 'to go' → ''tovo'' 'to send, bring in'
 
''-vi'' Causator noun derivation suffix, to describe the originator or the thing or being causing the existence of a thing, a state of being, or an action.
 
Example:
''ami'' 'job, work' → ''amivi'' 'energy'
 
'''Society'''
 
''-na'' Endonym/Exonym derivation suffix, used to derive nouns referring to groups of people, mostly ethnicities or populations of a nation/state. Etymologically most likely related to ''no'' (to live, be).
 
Known synonymous affixes:
''-ana'' (after consonants)
 
Example:
Jute 'Jute' → Jutena 'Jutean, Juteans'
 
''-ehi'' Suffix for the derivation of a person sharing a trait/profession/etc. with another one, that is 'a fellow X'. Derived from ''ehe'' (too, like, likewise etc.)
 
Known synonymous affixes:
''-hehi'' (after vowels)
 
Example:
''ama'' 'worker' → ''amahehi'' 'fellow worker, colleague'
 
''-afa'' Noun derivation suffix for things or places owned or done collectively, probably from a (of, by) and fa (inclusive collective first person pronoun)
 
Known synonymous affixes:
''-fa'' (after words already ending in ''-f'', particularly ''-af'')
 
Examples:
''mihonon'' 'house' → ''mihonafa'' 'community hall'
''vettaf'' 'fight, conflict' → ''vettaffa'' 'war'
 
''-mo'' Agentive derivation suffix used for referring to professions, (more) permanent states or occupations or jobs. Can be used on both nouns and verbs. Originally from amo (to do, work).
 
Known derivation suffixes:
''-amo'' (after consonants) -Ø (when the original word already ends in ''-mo'')
 
Example:
''noitosani'' 'teaching' → ''noitosanimo'' 'teacher'
 
''mo- -he'' Temporary agentive derivation circumfix, for momentary or transitional states, acts etc. Can also be used both on verbs and nouns. Probably originating by prefixing the aforementioned, more permanent agentive suffix ''mo'' and suffixing ''he''
 
Example:
''letafo'' 'to travel' → ''moletafohe'' 'traveller'
 
 
==Possession==
 
Since possessive pronouns are nonexistent, ''a'' + personal pronoun in the oblique case are used for inalienable possession, relationship or authorship.
 
 
''Vunam a he laf ha'' '''"Their parent"''' ("Parent of them")
 
''Hotif a he ta ha'' '''"My book" [a book that I wrote]''' ("Book of me")
 
''Ova a vuhatatede'' '''"The top of the mountain"''' ("Top of mountain")
 
For alienable possession, a relative nominalization is used, for example ''vailita a vohi a me ha ma'' '''"vehicle that I use"''' (literally "vehicle of using of me").  


==Syntax==
==Syntax==
''Main article: [[Jutean syntax]]''


===Mainclauses===
Jutean has an unusually rigid VSO word order that allows few syntactic movements. Questions use a particle rather than a change in word order, and all other constituents of a clause tend to only have one slot they are allowed to go in. However, any of them (verbal phrase, subject, objects etc.) can be dropped if they can be derived from context.  
Strictly VSO, including in questions. Adverbs come last, with locations preceding time adverbs. Auxiliary verbs precede the other verb directly. Subclauses are usually nominalized, especially relative ones.
 
The complete order would be:
 
1. Conjunction (if two main clauses are connected)
 
2. Auxiliary verb
 
3. Auxiliary verb particle
 
4. Verb
 
5. Verb particle
 
6. Subject (Noun/pronoun in direct case)
 
7. Direct object (takes the indirect case)
 
8. Oblique/indirect object (usually takes the oblique case)
 
9. Adverbs (manner - place - time)
 
10. Question particle (separated by comma)
 
However, if the oblique object is animate, and the direct object is inanimate, sometimes the oblique object can come before the direct object.
 
===Subclauses===


Subclauses are usually avoided, often by turning them into main clauses, where possible. These are linked with a conjunction, (most of the time "u", "and").
The language is also strongly head-initial, with the heads of verb, noun and adpositional phrases all preceding their complements. Subclauses are always nominalized, but mostly avoided and turned into separate main clauses or incorporated into a main clause with the help of 'verb stacking' or serial verb constructions.


In other case, when a subclause is needed, a nominalization is used, as is the case with, for example, relative clauses.
==Vocabulary==


Multiple subclauses in a single sentence are almost always avoided, since they can easily become confusing for the listener or let the speaker "trip" over their own words and cause you to lose your train of thought. This still applies, albeit less so, for written language.
===Native words===
''This section is empty.''


Word order in nominalized subclauses is still VSO and otherwise unchanged as well, though there is no need to always have a distinct subject, as subclauses can refer back to the subject of the main clause. They are usually introduced by "a", "of, from, by, about", followed by the gerundive form of the verb.  
===Loans===
''This section is empty.''


==Numerals==
===Numerals===


Jutean uses a base-5 counting system, so "ten" would be literally translated as "two five". Ordinal numbers (first, second, third) are formed by adding the oblique case ending -ede/-de. Numbers aren't declined.
Jutean uses a base-5 counting system, so "ten" would be literally translated as "two five". Ordinal numbers (first, second, third) are formed by adding the oblique case ending -ede/-de. Numbers aren't declined.
Line 778: Line 471:
|}
|}


==Pragmatics==
''Main article: [[Jutean pragmatics]]''
Jutean has three levels of formality. The most formal one is called the 'humble' or 'polite' one, and the less formal registers are the neutral and the casual one. The registers vary in how they phrase e.g. questions and answers, praises, pleas and orders, using different moods, pronouns and dedicated phrases and words as well as honorifics. The unmarked indicative is avoided in the formal one, and greetings and phrasing are generally longer and more elaborate. The casual register is characterized by terse and plain speech, using no honorifics.
Sometimes there is overlap between two, creating a semi-formal register, when the 'humble' register might be inappropriate, such as in a casual everyday conversation, but the speaker wants to be particularly polite, e.g. towards an elderly person or any one else highly respected. Using the inappropriate level of formality can also be used purposefully for humorous effect or to be insulting.
==Legal status and varieties==
''This section is empty.''
==See also==
* [[River Jutean]]
* [[Trans-Ebo-Puzimm languages]]


[[Category:Jutean]][[Category:Jute]][[Category:Juto-Ngutanic]]
[[Category:Languages]] [[Category:Trans-Ebo-Puzimm languages]] [[Category:Languages of Jute]] [[Category:Jutean]]

Latest revision as of 19:04, 23 February 2022

Jutean
Coastal Jutean
Tahivi a net / Net
Pronunciation/tɐhiʋi ɐ net/, /net/
RegionYstel (Jute, South Jute, Mermelia), Lahan (Tuyo), Vaniua (Balakia), Boroso (Lhavres)
EthnicityCoastal Juteans (native), River Juteans, South Juteans, Klambari, Samwati (common second language)
Native speakers1,570,000  (2015)
Language family
Trans-Ebo-Puzimm
  • Saru-Asuran
    • Sanju-Jutean
      • Proto-Jutean
        • Jutean
Early forms:
Ancient Jutean
  • Middle Jutean
    • Reformed Jutean
      • Colonial Jutean
        • Jutean
DialectsSitti
Official status
Official language inJute
CWS codeJUT
200

Coastal Jutean, commonly known as Jutean, is a language of the Jutic branch of the Saru-Asuran language family, itself part of the Trans-Ebo-Puzimm macrofamily, spoken on the island of Jute as the official language and by 1,270,000 people as their native language as well as in several diasporas around the world, such as in South Jute, Balakia and Lhavres. Coastal Jutean is not to be confused with River Jutean, a related, but distinct language spoken mostly inland on the island.

It is assumed to have developed after the first ancestors of present day ethnic Juteans arrived at the island at around 1000 BC. The people remaining on the coast would eventually speak what is today referred to as Jutean, or Coastal Jutean (Jutean: tahivi a net), whereas the people venturing inside would develop River Jutean (River Jutean: tahosoe val ma, /taho͡asoɛ vɐl mɐ/). It had no official status until after Jute regained independence in , during and prior to the colonial era it was just one of the languages spoken on the island, albeit the most widely spoken one.

It is notable for its use of the Austronesian alignment, its lack of adjectives as a separate part of speech, and the absence of marked tense, aspect or number (with the exception of numbers in pronouns). Triggers or intransitive sentences are also used for passive meanings.

Personal pronouns, while having the standard 1st/2nd/3rd person, are unusual in other regards. There are three numbers (arguably four in the first person plural), clusitivity, gender and animacy distinctions.

The language also lacks possessive pronouns, reflecting the different concepts of the speakers of the language regarding ownership. A genitive-like construction is solely used for inalienable possession, for alienable ones relative nominalizations are used, such as "the land I live on", or "the boat I'm sailing" rather than "my land" or "my boat".


Family and origin

This section is empty.

History

This section is empty.

Ancient Jutean

Middle Jutean

Reformed Jutean

Colonial-era Jutean

Modern-day Jutean

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n [ŋ]¹
Plosive t, d k
Fricative f s, [z]² [ʃ]³ h
Approximant ʋ j
Lateral app. l

¹at codas when followed by /k/, allophone of /n/

²at syllable onsets before long vowels, allophone of /s/

³in a few dialects, allophone of /s/

Vowels

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i, i: u, u:
Near-close
Close-mid e, e:
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open ɐ ɐ:
Open [a:]¹ ɑ, ɑ:, [ɒ:]²

¹in some dialects, allophone of /ɐ:/

²in some dialects, allophone of /ɑ:/

Diphthongs

ɑi ɑe ɑu ie iɐ iɑ iu ui ue uɐ uɑ eɑ eu ei eɐ ɐu ɐi ɐe

Triphthongs

iɑ: e:ɑ

Phonotactics

Syllable Structure

(C)V(V)(V/C), though V, CV and VC are most common. More complex syllables such as CVC, CVVC appear less often and particularly CVVV is rare.

Consonant clusters can thus only appear at syllable boundaries, and only the geminations of /t/, /k/, /m/, /n/ and /l/ as well as two-consonant clusters starting with /n/, /m/ or /l/ are allowed.

VV are either long vowels or vowel diphthongs, and VVV are long diphthongs.

Stress information

Mostly on the penultimate syllable, sometimes on the last syllable with a long vowel/diphtong, but it's not fixed and can also be used to emphasize a part of a word, for example the negating suffix '-l' or '-al'.

Intonation

This section is empty.

Orthography

This section requires expansion: Information on the orthography of non-Terminic scripts missing

The predominant writing system used for Jutean is a native syllabary independent from, but loosely inspired by native proto-writing and the Adzo-Neviric script brought by Neviran officials in the 17th century, which had been the first people to introduce writing on Jute. It was developed in the 18th century as a form of cultural resistance to Neviran officials to prevent further assimilation and distinguish the native languages more clearly.

The romanization is as follows:

Aa /a/ Dd /d/ Ee /e/ Ff /f/ Hh /h/ Ii /i/ Jj /j/ Kk /k/

Ll /l/ Mm /m/ Nn /n/, /ŋ/ Oo /ɑ/ Ss /s/, /ʃ/ Tt /t/ Uu /u/ Vv /ʋ/

Capital letters are only used for the beginning of a sentence and for names.

Morphology

Main article: Jutean inflection

Nouns

Nouns belong to one of three noun classes. The first one is generally termed the 'common' or 'civilization' noun class and entails people, professions, domesticated or harmless animals and physical, everyday things, such as dova (tree). The second one is the 'abstract' or 'immaterial' noun class and contains all intangible items, ideas, concepts, such as 'dovi' (height) It is also used for much of space vocabulary and for some general terms. The third noun class is labeled 'wilderness', words related to the jungle, the ocean, or other 'wild' places, physical and metaphorical (e.g. the subconscious) belong to it, such as 'dovu' (jungle tree). However, there are words that don't find this pattern due to having a particular noun class for etymological reasons, such as 'dovi' (tower) which is derived from 'dovi' (height) and so retains the immaterial/abstract noun class.

Three cases exist, the unmarked direct case for subjects, the indirect case for direct objects and oblique objects designating a location, and the oblique case for all other oblique objects. They are marked by suffixes or, in the case of longer words, with particles. Some nouns do not decline, such as adjectical nouns, or do not in specific circumstances, e.g. in names of languages or temporal adverbial phrases.

Adjectives

Adjectives do not exist as a distinct part of speech in Jutean, and instead adjectival nouns and stative verbs are used. While stative verbs (such as ildeso, 'be sure/strict') morphologically and syntactically function like other unergative verbs and are used as such, adjectival nouns are added, together with the preposition a (here: 'of') to a noun like an oblique object, but do not get the oblique case suffix, as in dovi a nihaa, 'old tower' or literally 'tower of oldness'.

Intensification is done with the adverb haad (here: 'much'), and comparative and superlative are in the case of stative verbs formed with the adverbs haade (more) and haadate (most), whereas adjectival nouns take another oblique phrase, a haada (of biggerness) or a haadat (of biggestness), with the exception of haad (here: 'bigness'), uke (goodness), dohaa (badness), which have their own irregular comparative and superlative forms. Additionally, the superlative can be augmented further with the 'archetypive', reserved for something that is seen as the perfect embodiment of a particular quality or characteristic, i.e. an archetype.

Verbs

Verbs in Jutean (always ending in -o) are usually sorted into two main categories, minor (always intransitive verbs such as unergative and many unaccusative verbs) and major verbs (which can be both transitive and intransitive), as Jutean has a mixed morphosyntactic alignment combining split-S ergativity with the Austronesian alignment. Aside from the two main categories, there is a smaller category of “mixed” verbs that combines characteristics of the two main categories, and a number of verbs that are syntactically irregular.

Triggers (agentive, patientive, locative and instrumental), as well as voices (active, antipassive, causative, reciprocal and reflexive) and moods (indicative, imperative, conditional, subjunctive, hortative) are usually marked by suffixes or in some cases with particles.

Adverbs

Adverbs do not decline and are among other things often used to indicate the aspect of a verb.

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are rather complex, and some forms are thought to be almost unique to Jutean. The inanimate pronouns are gendered (common, abstract/immaterial, 'wilderness'), the 3rd person pronoun referring to humans (and other sentient beings) however doesn't make distinctions.

Person 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd (plants and animals) 3rd (inanimate, gender)
Singular ta na la uvu ehi, aha, ohu
Plural fa (incl.), fanal (excl. a single person),

fanafal (excl. several people)

naf laf uvuf ahaf, ehif, ohuf
Collective fa (incl.) fafanal (excl. of a group) fan fal uvuf, fuvu (rarely) ahaf, ehif, ohuf (a af/efi/uf)

Colloquially and in dialects like Sitti, aha, ehi, ohu might be used for both singular and plural, and af, efi, uf for collective and in some cases also plural.

For the indirect case, the particle he is put in front of the pronoun, for the oblique case the circumferential particle me ... ma is used.

Example: ta - 'I'

(li) he ta - 'me, (to) me'

(nuhe) me ta ma, (a) me ta ma - '(for) me, (of) me, (by) me' (etc.)

Demonstrative pronouns

They are distinguished by gender and distance (proximal, medial and distal).

Gender Common Abstract/Immaterial 'Wilderness'
Proximal ja ji ju
Medial jam jim jum
Distal jaha jahi jahu

Possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns don't exist. Instead, a + personal pronoun in the oblique case are used for inalienable possession. Inalienable possession is limited to (body) parts, family members and friends, as well as thoughts, feelings, actions and experiences. Some other kinds of relationship or authorship can also be indicated with this construction.

Vunam a he laf ha 'Their parent'
("Parent of them")

Hotif a he ta ha 'My book' [a book that I wrote]
("Book of me")

Ova a vuhatatede 'The top of the mountain'
("Top of mountain")

For everything else, alienable possession is used, which is formed with a relative nominalization describing the situation or relationship between one or more persons and animals (when not treated as friends or family members), objects, jobs, offices, places.

Vailita a vohi a me ta ma 'Vehicle that I use'
Vehicle of use-GER of OBL 1S OBL ('Vehicle of using of me')

Hotif a fuumohi a me ta ma 'Book that I read'
Book of read-GER of OBL 1S OBL ('book of reading of me')

Nijauva a sehukohi a vunamede 'Cat that parent(s) care for'
Cat of care-GER of parent-OBL ('cat of caring of parent(s)')

Adpositions

These can sometimes be gendered as well, for example ado/ido/udo 'at, by', etc. and come mostly in front of the noun, although some postpositions, e.g. todentije ('next'), exist as well.

Question particles

To form a question, question particles are attached at the end of a sentence, separated by a comma. They basic particle is haa and used for yes/no questions. Other questions use particles that consist of the basic form and a suffix, noun or pronoun (depending on what is being asked). While most are well established, occasionally new ones are derived on the spot in informal speech or writing.

Examples:

Question particle Constituents Translation
haaja/haaji/haaju haa + demonstrative 'What/Which (one)?'
haan haa + place suffix 'Where?'
haasin haa + 'saini' (person/people) 'Who?'
hasooni' haa + dooni (time) 'When?'
haava haa + va (here: material) 'Made of what?'
haatoni haa + toni (way, method) 'How?'
haano haa + no (to be) Why?

Negation

Negation of a noun, verb, adverb or adposition is formed by adding -l (if the word ends in a vowel) or -al (if the word ends in a consonant) to the end of the word. If the verb already has a mood or trigger suffix, the 'al' particle is postponed instead. This can also be done with declined nouns or gerund forms, and is in fact commonly the case with the former.

Derivational morphology

Main article: Jutean derivation

In general, affixes and compounding are used for derivation. For adverbs, -e is usually added to the end, while verbs take -o or -ho, barring some exceptions. Nouns have a variety of possible derivation affixes that can be used to change the gender or noun class of a noun, to create diminutives or augmentatives, instrumentals, resultatives, causatives and create words denoting e.g. ability, agency, and many other characteristics.

Syntax

Main article: Jutean syntax

Jutean has an unusually rigid VSO word order that allows few syntactic movements. Questions use a particle rather than a change in word order, and all other constituents of a clause tend to only have one slot they are allowed to go in. However, any of them (verbal phrase, subject, objects etc.) can be dropped if they can be derived from context.

The language is also strongly head-initial, with the heads of verb, noun and adpositional phrases all preceding their complements. Subclauses are always nominalized, but mostly avoided and turned into separate main clauses or incorporated into a main clause with the help of 'verb stacking' or serial verb constructions.

Vocabulary

Native words

This section is empty.

Loans

This section is empty.

Numerals

Jutean uses a base-5 counting system, so "ten" would be literally translated as "two five". Ordinal numbers (first, second, third) are formed by adding the oblique case ending -ede/-de. Numbers aren't declined.


Number Cardinal Ordinal
1 iki ikide
2 leke lekede
3 kiuki kiukide
4 kihaki kihakide
5 kiif kiifede
6 kiif-iki kiif-ikide
7 kiif-leke kiif-lekede
8 kiif-kiuki kiif-kiukide
9 kiif-kihaki kiif-kihakide
10 leke-kiivi leke-kiivide
11 leke-kiivi iki leke-kiivi ikide
12 leke-kiivi leke leke-kiivi lekede

Pragmatics

Main article: Jutean pragmatics

Jutean has three levels of formality. The most formal one is called the 'humble' or 'polite' one, and the less formal registers are the neutral and the casual one. The registers vary in how they phrase e.g. questions and answers, praises, pleas and orders, using different moods, pronouns and dedicated phrases and words as well as honorifics. The unmarked indicative is avoided in the formal one, and greetings and phrasing are generally longer and more elaborate. The casual register is characterized by terse and plain speech, using no honorifics.

Sometimes there is overlap between two, creating a semi-formal register, when the 'humble' register might be inappropriate, such as in a casual everyday conversation, but the speaker wants to be particularly polite, e.g. towards an elderly person or any one else highly respected. Using the inappropriate level of formality can also be used purposefully for humorous effect or to be insulting.

Legal status and varieties

This section is empty.

See also