Constitution of Rosland
The Constitution of Rosland is the supreme law of the State of Rosland. It lays out the framework of the national government and the functions of the ruling state party and was officially enacted in 1956 when Rosland officially declared itself a socialist state following a period of political struggle and unrest in the aftermath of the Veridian Occupation during the Giradz dictatorship.
WE ROSIAN CITIZENS, heirs and continuators of the traditions of firmness, heroism and sacrifice fostered by our ancestors; by the workers, peasants, intellectuals who struggled against imperialist domination, political corruption, the absence of people’s rights and liberties, exploitation by capitalists and landowners; by those who promoted, joined and developed the first organisations of workers and peasants, spread socialist ideas; by those who defended the Revolution at the cost of their lives, thus contributing to its definitive consolidation; by those who en masse carried out heroic missions;
GUIDED by the ideas of Martsëló Manźú, who organised and guided an anti-Veridian revolutionary struggle and forwarded an independent revolutionary line, wisely guided the social revolution and construction at various levels, strengthened and developed the Republic into a people-centred socialist country and a socialist state of independence, self-sustenance, and self-defence.
AND HAVING DECIDED to carry forward the triumphant Revolution which sustained by the closest unity of all revolutionary forces and of the people won national independence, established revolutionary power, carried out democratic changes, started the construction of socialism and, with the Worker’s Party at the forefront, continues this construction with the final objective of building Utopia; We declare our will that the law of laws of the Republic be guided by the following strong desire of Martsëló Manźú and adopt the following constitution;
Chapter I: Politics
Article 1. The Democratic Republic of Rosland is an independent socialist state representing the interests of all the Ros people.
Article 2. The DRR is a revolutionary state which has inherited brilliant traditions formed during the glorious revolutionary struggle against the imperialist aggressors, in the struggle to achieve the liberation of the homeland and the freedom and well-being of the people.
Article 3. The DRR is guided in its activities by the socialist idea with Rosian characteristics; a world outlook centred on people, a revolutionary ideology for achieving the independence of the masses of people.
Article 4. The sovereignty of the DRR resides in the workers, peasants, working intellectuals and all other working people. (2) The working people exercise power through their representative organs and local people’s assemblies at all levels.
Article 5. All the State organs in the DRR are formed and function on the principle of democratic centralism.
Article 6. The organs of State power at all levels, are elected on the principle of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
Article 7. Deputies to the organs of State power at all levels have close ties with their constituents and are accountable to them for their work.
Article 8. The social system of the DRR is a people-centred system under which the working people are masters of everything, and everything in society serves the working people. (2) The State shall defend and protect the interests of the workers, peasants and working intellectuals who have been freed from exploitation and oppression and become masters of the State and society.
Article 9. The DRR shall strive to achieve the complete victory of socialism by strengthening the people’s power and vigorously performing the three revolutions - the ideological, cultural and technical - and free the southern regions of the country from the grasp of Veridian Imperialism on the principle of independence, peaceful reunification and great national unity.
Article 10. The DRR bases itself on the political and ideological unity of the entire people based on the worker-peasant alliance in which the working class plays a leading role. (2)The State strengthens the ideological revolution and revolutionises and working-classises all the social members, and binds the whole society in a united group, linked up with comradeship.
Article 11. The DRR shall conduct all activities under the leadership of the Rosian Workers Party.
Article 12. The State shall adhere to the class line, strengthen the dictatorship of people’s democracy and firmly defend the people’s power and socialist system against all subversive acts of hostile elements at home and abroad.
Article 13. Independence, peace, and solidarity are the basic ideals of the foreign policy and the principles of external activities of the DRR.
Article 14. The law of the DRR reflects the wishes and interests of the working people and is a basic instrument for State administration.
Chapter II: Economy
Article 15. The DRR relies on the socialist production relations and on the foundation of an independent national economy.
Article 16. In the DRR, the means of production are owned only by the State and social cooperative organisations.
Article 17. The property of the State belongs to the entire people. (2) There is no limit to the property which the State can own. (3) Only the State possesses all the natural resources, railways, airports, transportation, communication organs and major factories, enterprises, ports and banks.
Article 18. The State shall enhance the ideological consciousness and the technical and cultural level of the peasants, increase the role of the property of the entire people in leading the cooperative property so as to combine the two forms of property systematically, shall consolidate and develop the socialist cooperative economic system by improving the guidance and management of the cooperative economy and gradually transform the property of cooperative organisations into the property of the people as a whole based on the voluntary will of all their members.
Article 19. The DRR regards the steady improvement of the material and cultural standards of the people as the supreme principle of its activities.
Article 20. The independent national economy of the DRR is a solid foundation for the people’s happy socialist life and for the prosperity of the motherland.
Article 21. Socialism is built by the creative labor of the working masses. In the DRR, labor is an independent and creative work of the working masses, who have been freed from exploitation and suppression. (2) The State renders the labor of our working people, who do not worry about unemployment, more joyful and worthwhile, so that they willingly work with enthusiasm and creativeness for society, organisations and for themselves.
Article 22. The daily working hours of the working masses are eight hours.
Article 23. In the DRR, the minimum working age is 16 years old. The State shall prohibit child labor under the stipulated working age.
Article 24. The State shall firmly adhere to the principle of properly combining political guidance with economic and technical guidance, the unified guidance of the State with the creativity of each unit, monolithic leadership with democracy, political and moral incentives with material incentives in the guidance and management of the socialist economy.
Article 25. The national economy of the DRR is a planned economy. (2) The State shall balance a proportion between accumulation and consumption properly, accelerate the economic construction, continue to raise people’s living standard and formulate and implement national economic development plans in order to strengthen the national defence capability. (3) The State shall formulate unified and detailed plans and guarantee a high rate production growth and a balanced development of the national economy.
Article 26. The DRR shall compile and implement the State budget along with the national economic development plan. (2) The State will intensify campaigns for increased production and expanded economy, carry out financial regulations strictly, increase the State’s savings, and expand and develop the socialist property.
Chapter III: Culture
Article 27. Socialist culture, which is flourishing and developing in the DRR, contributes to the improvement of the creative ability of the working people and to meeting their sound cultural and aesthetic demands.
Article 28. The DRR shall, by carrying out a thorough cultural revolution, train the working people to be builders of socialism equipped with a profound knowledge of nature and society and a high level of culture and technology, thus making the whole of society intellectual.
Article 29. The DRR shall develop a truly popular, revolutionary culture which serves the socialist working people. (2) In building a socialist national culture, the State shall oppose the cultural infiltration of imperialism and any tendency to return to the past, protect its national cultural heritage, and develop it in keeping with the existing socialist situation.
Article 30. The State shall put the principles of socialist education into practice and raise the new generation to be steadfast revolutionaries who will fight for society and the people, to be people of a new socialist type who are knowledgeable, morally sound and physically healthy.
Article 31. The State shall provide education to all pupils and students free of charge and grant allowances to students of universities and colleges.
Article 32. The State shall strengthen social education and provide the working people with all available conditions for study.
Article 33. The State shall develop revolutionary literature and art, national in form and socialist in content.
Article 34. The State shall safeguard our language from all attempts to obliterate it and shall develop it to meet present-day needs.
Chapter IV: National Defence
Article 35. The mission of the armed forces of the DRR is to safeguard the interests of the working people, to defend the socialist system and the gains of the revolution from aggression and to protect the freedom, independence and peace of the country.
Article 36. The State shall implement the line of self-reliant defence, the import of which is to arm the entire people, fortify the country, train the army into a cadre army and modernise the army on the basis of equipping the army and the people politically and ideologically.
Article 37. The State shall strengthen military and mass discipline in the army and promote the display of the noble traditional trait of unity between officers and men and unity between the army and the people.
Chapter V: Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens
Article 38. The terms for becoming a citizen of the Democratic Republic of Rosland is defined by the Law on Nationality. (2) A citizen is under the protection of the DRR regardless of the domicile.
Article 39. In the DRR the rights and freedom of citizens shall be amplified with the consolidation and development of the social system.
Article 40. Citizens enjoy equal rights in all spheres of State and public activities.
Article 41. Citizens are entitled to submit complaints and petitions. (2) Complaints and petitions shall be investigated and dealt with according to procedure and within the period fixed by law.
Article 42. All able-bodied citizens choose occupations in accordance with their wishes and skills and are provided with stable jobs and working conditions. Citizens work according to their abilities and are paid in accordance with the quantity and quality of their work.
Article 43. Citizens have the right to relaxation. This right is ensured by the establishment of the working hours, the provision of holidays, paid leave, accommodation at health resorts and holiday homes at State expense and by a growing network of cultural facilities.
Article 45. Citizens are entitled to free medical care, and all persons who are no longer able to work because of old age, illness or a physical disability, the old and children who have no means of support are all entitled to material assistance.
Article 46. Citizens have the right to education. This right is ensured by an advanced educational system and by the educational measures enacted by the State for the benefit of the people.
Article 47. Citizens are free to engage in scientific, literary and artistic pursuits.
Article 48. Revolutionary fighters, the families of revolutionary and patriotic martyrs, the families of soldiers of the People’s Army and disabled enjoy the special protection of the State and society.
Article 49. Citizens shall firmly safeguard the political and ideological unity and solidarity of the people. (2) Citizens must value organisations and collectives, and must demonstrate the spirit of devoting themselves to the work for the society and the people.
Article 50. Citizens shall strictly observe the laws of the State and the socialist standards of life and defend their honour and dignity as citizens of the DRR.
Article 51. Work is noble duty and honour of a citizen. Citizens shall willingly and conscientiously participate in work and strictly observe labor discipline and the working hours.
Article 52. Citizens shall take good care of State and communal property, combat all forms of misappropriation and waste and manage the nation’s economy diligently as the masters.
Article 53. Citizens shall constantly increase their revolutionary vigilance and devotedly fight for the security of the State.
Article 54. National defence is the supreme duty and honour of citizens. Citizens shall defend the country and serve in the army as required by law.
Chapter VI: Structure of the State
Paragraph I) The Presidium of the People
Article 55. The Presidium of the People is the highest organ of State power in the DRR.
Article 56. The Presidium of the People exercises legislative power.
Article 57. The Presidium of the People is elected for a term of five years.
Article 58. The Presidium of the People holds regular and extraordinary sessions. Regular sessions are convened once or twice a year. Extraordinary sessions are convened when the Presidium of the People deems them necessary or at the request of a minimum of one-third of the total number of deputies.
Article 59. The Presidium of the People requires a quorum of at least two-thirds of the total number of deputies in order to meet.
Article 60. The Presidium of the People elects its Chairman and vice chairmen. The Chairman presides over the sessions.
Article 61. An item on the agenda to be deliberated on by the Presidium of the People is submitted to the Supreme People’s Assembly.
Article 62. Deputies to the Presidium of the People and the Supreme people’s Assembly are guaranteed inviolability as such no deputy can be arrested or punished without the consent of their or, when it is not in session, without the consent of the PP or SPA, except for a flagrant offence.
Paragraph II) The Council of National Defence
Article 63. The Council of National Defence is the highest military leading organ of State power and an organ for general control over national defence.
Article 64. The Council of National Defence consists of its Chairman, first vice chairman, vice chairmen and members.
Article 65. The Chairman of the Council of National Defence directs and commands all the armed forces and guides defence affairs as a whole.
Paragraph III) The Supreme People’s Assembly
Article 66. The Supreme People’s Assembly is the highest organ of power in the intervals between sessions of the Presidium of the People.
Article 67. The Supreme People’s Assembly consists of its Chairman, vice chairman, secretaries and members.
Article 68. The Supreme People’s Assembly adopts laws and decisions. (2) Laws and decisions of the Presidium of the People are adopted when more than half of the deputies of the SPA attending signify approval by a show of hands.
Article 69. The Supreme People’s Assembly issues decrees, decisions and directions as well as implementing bills submitted to it by the Presidium of the People.
Paragraph III) Cabinet and Premier
Article 70. The Cabinet is the administrative and executive body of the highest organ of State power and a general state management organ.
Article 71. The Premier organises and guides the work of the Cabinet. The Premier represents the government of the DRR.
Article 72. The Cabinet is accountable to the Presidium of the People, and to the Supreme People’s Assembly when the Presidium of the People is in recess.
Article 73. The newly elected Premier makes an oath in the Presidium of the People, representing Cabinet members.
Article 74. The Cabinet commission and ministries are departmental executive organs, and departmental management organs.
Article 75. The Cabinet commissions and ministries manage committee assemblies and cadres assemblies. Commission and ministry committee assemblies and cadres assemblies deliberate on and adopt measures to exercise Cabinet decisions, and directions and other important issues.