Dhwer and Mbamigi writing system

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The Dhwer and Mbamigi writing system (Dhwer: KuPlaHūlg Ðweruw, Mbamigi: Uzeɂi g̃el B̃amigi aa) is a vertically-written alphabet used primarily in the United Kingdom of Dhwer and Penkrot and the Republic of the Mbamigi Islands. It is used to write both the Dhwer and Mbamigi languages.

The alphabet first appeared during the Nomadic Period in what is now central Penkrot from 400 BCE to 200 CE and was originally used to write Ancient Dhweric.

In both languages, a vertical bar (Dhwer: hamb, Mbamigi: ɂab̃e), sits to the right of each consonant (to which the consonant is usually--but not always--attached. Vowel diacritics are written to the right of the vertical bar. Vowels are never attached to the vertical bar. Punctuation may be written above, below or to the left of consonants. It may or may not be attached to the vertical bar.

The Dhwer alphabet consists of 15 consonants and 8 vowel diacritics. The Mbamigi alphabet consists of 14 consonants and 3 vowel diacritics.

Alphabet

Consonants

Character Dhwer Mbamigi
Name Romanization Pronunciation Name Romanization Pronunciation
15px Pant P p /p/ B̃o /ᵐb/
15px Terl T t /t̪/ D̃ami /ⁿd/
15px Þūlm Þ þ /θ/ (none)[1] (none) (none)
15px Klenk K k /k/ G̃aiɂa /ᵑg/
15px Baynð B b /b/ Bainze B b /b/
15px Də̄lg D d /d̪/ Dele D d /d/
15px Ðenkt Ð ð /ð/ Zeg̃i Z z /z/
15px Grarl G g /g/ Goi G g /g/
15px Marl M m /m/ Mau M m /m/
15px Naynk N n /n/ Naiŋ N n /n/
15px Ramp R r /ɹ/ Ŋab̃e Ŋ ŋ /ŋ/
15px Leþk L l /l/ Lele L l /l/
15px Hāder H h /h/ Ɂeedu Ɂ ɂ /Ɂ/
15px Yump Y y /j/ Ii I i /i/[2],/j/
15px Welb W w /w/ Oo O o /o/[2]

Vowel diacritics

Character Dhwer Mbamigi
Name Romanization Pronunciation Name Romanization Pronunciation
15px Həbd Ə ə /ə/ (none)[1] (none) (none)
15px Hə̄ntak Ə̄ ə̄ /ʌ/ (none)[1] (none) (none)
15px Halpert A a /a/ Aa A a /a/
15px Hānþ Ā ā /æ/ (none)[1] (none) (none)
15px Helk E e /e/ Ee E e /e/
15px Hērb Ē ē /ø/ (none)[1] (none) (none)
15px Humb U u /u/ Uu U u /u/,/w/
15px Hūðbak Ū ū /ʊ/ (none)[1] (none) (none)

Punctuation

Note: The letter 10px is used here to indicate punctuation positioning.

Punctuation Mark Dhwer Mbamigi
Name Function Notes Name Function Notes
15px KeHenkret Denotes a space between words. Also used centered to the left of vowel diacritics when they are not in words. No exact Latin equivalent. Ɂeg̃u Denotes a space between words. Also used centered to the left of stand-alone vowel diacritics. No exact Latin equivalent.
15px KeNulk Denotes a completed sentence. Equivalent to period or full stop. Zezu Denotes a completed sentence. Equivalent to period or full stop.
15px KeNulk Geltuw Denotes a break in a sentence. No exact Latin equivalent. Often used similarly to a colon, semicolon and some uses of a comma. Zezu Meŋe en Denotes a break in a sentence. No exact Latin equivalent. Often used similarly to a colon, semicolon and some uses of a comma.
15px KeRenð Denotes a pause in a sentence. Used similarly to a comma. Written before the word following the pause. Iaɂu Denotes a pause in a sentence. Used similarly to a comma. Written before the word following the pause.
15px KeÞelg Denotes a new thought. Used similarly to paragraph indentation. Written before the sentence. Zeuge Denotes a new thought. Used similarly to paragraph indentation. Written before the sentence.
15px KeMurm Denotes a question. Used similarly to a question mark. Written before the sentence. Full stop still used. Iebze Denotes a question. Used similarly to a question mark. Written before the sentence. Full stop still used.
15px KeTulþ Denotes an exclamation. Used similarly to a exclamation mark. Written before the sentence. Full stop still used. Duuli Denotes an exclamation. Used similarly to a exclamation mark. Written before the sentence. Full stop still used.
15px KeRāð Denotes a quotation. Used similarly to quotation marks. Written before the sentence. Full stop still used after. Laeɂue Denotes a quotation. Used similarly to quotation marks. Written before the sentence. Full stop still used after.
15px KeBulg Denotes an affix. No exact Latin equivalent. Optional. Not used.
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Character not used in Mbamigi.
  2. 2.0 2.1 While consonants in Dhwer, 10px and 10px are considered vowels in Mbamigi, even though they are still written as consonants.