|Native speakers||49,596,676 (2020)|
- 1 Classification
- 2 History
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Morphology and syntax
- 5 Vocabulary
- 6 Writing and literature
The Egeriac language is an Alcian language, it is one of the north Alcian languages of the Alcian language family and is the only surviving language of the north Alcian languages.
|Plosive||p b||t d||k g||ʔ|
|Fricative||f v||(θ) (ð)||s z||ʃ||(x) (ɣ)||ħ ʕ||h|
- [θ] [ð] [x] [ɣ] are allophones of /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ respectively.
- geminated /ɾ/ is pronounced as the trilled /r/.
- The use of [θ] [ð] [ɣ] [ħ] [ʕ] is diminishing, in colloquial speech, [θ] [ð] [ɣ] [ħ] [ʕ] are often merged with [t], [d], [g], [x], [w] respectively.
[ɪ] and [ɨ] are allophones of /e/. The pronounciation of /e/ varies between [e], [ɪ] and [ɨ], it is a subject of dialectic and even personal variations. In some dialects, /e/ has been merged with /ɛ/ or /i/; also, while [e] is the standard pronounciation of /e/, most people pronounce it as [ɨ] and sometimes [ɪ], because [e] can mix up with [ɛ] easily.
All syllables start with a consonant. Syllables that seem to start with a vowel actually start with the glottal stop.
Morphology and syntax
The Egeriac language relies on the use of internal vowel changes alongside with affixes for certain grammatical functions. Some affixes also trigger internal vowel changes.
Nouns in Egeriac does not inflect for case, but nouns inflect for number and possession.
The plural form of nouns are marked by adding the suffix -oth, or by internal vowel change, or by the combination of both; besides, some nouns follow collective-singulative pattern, in which the unmarked form is a collective form, and the singulative form is created from the collective form by adding -u or -i, the -u suffix is used for humans, and the -i suffix is used for everything else.
Adjectives agree with nouns in number; besides, adjectives have an elative form, which is used as both of the comparative and superlative form of an adjective. The superlative form is created by adding the definite article to the elative form of an adjective.
Like all other languages, it is possible to form new words with existing morphemes in Egeriac. In Egeriac, new words can be derived from existing roots by affixation or internal vowel change. Compounding is less common and is generally restricted to the formation of nouns.
The word order features are listed below:
- Basic Word Order: Subject-Object-Verb(SOV)
- Adpositions are prepositions
- Conjuctions are in the initial position of the clause
- Demonstratives, articles, numerals precede the noun they modify; Adjectives, Possessors and Relative Clauses follow the noun they modify
The Egeriac language has SOV as the main sentential word order, and the order between the subject, the object and the verb is pretty rigid due to a lack of nominal case system; however, Egeriac word order shows a lot of syntactic features expected to VO languages like the tendency to use prepositions, the use of initial conjugations and relative clauses follow the head nouns, and some related languages have VO as the main word order. Therefore, there's a theory that the ancestor language of Egeriac had an VO word order, and its word order shifted to SOV due to contacts with Adzamic and Baredan languages.
Positions of Adverbial Phrases
Relative Clauses and Content Clauses
Relative clauses start with the invariant complementizer zed, the complementizer zed does not decline according to number, case, etc., and the relativized word is left blank in the relative clause. The relative clause follows the noun it modifies.
Whether the head noun is the subject or the direct object in the relative clause, is sometimes ambiguous, however, in most circumstances, the context and background knowledge may help disambiguate a sentence.
- h-an zed he-xeneth kanadi yon nudi - the person, who found the sun, lives here.
- he-num zed h-an hamami zovol - the house, which the person bought, is big.
Content Clauses can also be introduced by zed. For example:
- zed Ebith he-num hamami virozath - I know that Ebith bought the house.
Egeriac is a verb-framing language, that is, the verb of a sentence usually shows the path of motion, and the adverbs or particles show the manner of motion.
The manner of a verb is often in the adverbial form.
Most words in Egeriac are inherited from Old Egeriac; however, there are also some loanwords. Some loanwords may have their vowels altered to fit in the morphology of Egeriac.
Some words in Egeriac
- 1st person singular(I/me): ni
- 2nd person singular(you(sg)): mi
- 3rd person singular(he/she/it): ki
- 1st person plural(we/us): neth
- 2nd person plural(you(pl)): meth
- 3rd person plural(they/them): heth
- reflexive(self): demel
- who: mar
- what: man
- which: maz
- where: manezed
- when: makex
- how: mach
- why: mal
- how much/how many: maza
- anyone/anybody: anvalan
- anything: anvalzen
- any: anval
- someone/somebody: anan
- something: anzen
- everyone/everybody: imvalan
- everything: imvalzen
- every: imval
- nobody: menan
- nothing: menzen
- this: ti
- that: yo
- these: tith
- those: yoth
- here: tin
- there: yon
- one: ana
- two: avora
- three: mera
- four: zbada
- five: mev
- six: neva
- seven: brava
- eight: mrava
- nine: mitoza
- ten: nemba
- eleven: anemba
- twelve: avoremba
- thirteen: meremba
- forteen: zbademba
- fifteen: mevemba
- sixteen: nevemba
- seventeen: bravemaba
- eighteen: mravemba
- nineteen: mitozemba
- twenty: namod
- thirty: namod nemba (20+10)
- forty: avara-mod
- fifty: avara-mod nemba (40+10)
- sixty: mera-mod
- seventy: mera-mod nemba (60+10)
- eighty: zbada-mod
- ninety: zbada-mod nemba (80+10)
- hundred: mevnez
- thousand: blug
- million: gozog
- zero: men/menath
Egeriac is base-20 with 10 as a subbase for numbers below 100, base-10 for numbers larger than 100. Cardinal numbers precede the noun, ordinal numbers follow the noun.