Difference between revisions of "Great Horde"

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{{Infobox Former Country
 
{{Infobox Former Country
|native_name = {{cs|DAD|. Mîşdarzan .}}<small>([[Koman language|Koman]])</small> <br/> ''Mîshḍarzan''  
+
|native_name = {{cs|DAD|Shâhâshar}}<small>([[Koman language|Koman]])</small> <br/> ''Shâhâshar'' <br/> {{cs|DAD|Mîzaran}} <small>([[Koman language|Koman]])</small>  <br/> ''Mîḍaran''{{efn|Their state followed the autonym ''Shâhâshar'' meaning "Âshar's realm''.}}
 
|conventional_long_name = Great Horde<br/>  
 
|conventional_long_name = Great Horde<br/>  
 
|common_name = Great Horde
 
|common_name = Great Horde
|national_motto      = {{cs|DAD|. Şár Sağa er Sağagam .}}<br/>"Şár Ṣağa ər Ṣağagam"<br/><small>"For God and the Heavenly Realm"</small>
+
|national_motto      = "Haṣağa ər Ṣağagam Yur"<br/><small>"For God and the Heavenly Realm"</small>
 +
 
 
|continent  =  
 
|continent  =  
 
|status      =
 
|status      =
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|image_map_caption = The Horde at its greatest extent. Dark green is territories and light green is areas subjugated to Āşar's raids.
 
|image_map_caption = The Horde at its greatest extent. Dark green is territories and light green is areas subjugated to Āşar's raids.
 
|capital          = [[Qomandar|Qomandar]]<small> (1289-1315)</small> <br/> [[Shozasan|Shozasan]] <small> (1315-1380;1437-1451;1527-1583)</small> <br/> [[Samadar|Samadar]] <small> (1380-1437;1451-1527;1583-1657)</small>
 
|capital          = [[Qomandar|Qomandar]]<small> (1289-1315)</small> <br/> [[Shozasan|Shozasan]] <small> (1315-1380;1437-1451;1527-1583)</small> <br/> [[Samadar|Samadar]] <small> (1380-1437;1451-1527;1583-1657)</small>
|common_languages  = [[Koman language|Classical Koman]] <small>(Official & court language; nobility, high literature, diplomacy)</small><br>[[Nashaghan language|Nashaghan]] <small>(lingua franca)</small><br>[[Balaki language|Balak]] <small>(Military & trade dignitaries, court)</small><br>[[Ohanian language|Ohanian]] <small>(court)</small><br>[[Amaian languages|Amaian languages]] <small>(court)</small><br>[[Proto-Vaniuan|Vaniuan languages]] <small>(court)</small>
+
|common_languages  = [[Koman language|Middle Koman]] <small>(Official & court language, high literature)</small><br>[[Nashaghan language|Nashaghan]] <small>(lingua franca)</small><br>[[Balaki language|Jazaghan]] <small>(Military & trade dignitaries, court)</small><br>[[Amaian languages|Amaian languages]] <small>(court)</small><br>[[Proto-Vaniuan|Vaniuan languages]] <small>(court)</small>
  
 
|religion          = {{plainlist|
 
|religion          = {{plainlist|
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|government_type  = [[Wikipedia:Theocracy|Theocratic Monarchy]]
 
|government_type  = [[Wikipedia:Theocracy|Theocratic Monarchy]]
 
|title_leader      = [[Mezaram]]
 
|title_leader      = [[Mezaram]]
|leader1          =  [[Shi Oshar|Şî Óşar]] <small>(first)</small>
+
|leader1          =  [[Shi Oshar|Âshar]] <small>(first)</small>
 
|year_leader1      = 1289-1321
 
|year_leader1      = 1289-1321
|leader2      =[[Bashar Osan|Başar Ósān]] <small>(last)</small>
+
|leader2      =[[Bashar Osan|Bashar Ghaywar]] <small>(last)</small>
 
|year_leader2    = 1640-1657
 
|year_leader2    = 1640-1657
  
|legislature  = [[House of Kings]]
+
|legislature  = [[Mîḍash Ṣûra]] <small>(House of Kings)</small>
 
|stat_year1  = 1600
 
|stat_year1  = 1600
 
|stat_area1  = 5550000
 
|stat_area1  = 5550000
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*{{flag|Balakia}}
 
*{{flag|Balakia}}
 
*{{flag|Kaatkukia}}
 
*{{flag|Kaatkukia}}
*{{flag|Khambvan}}
+
*{{flag|Zwazwamia}}
 
*{{flag|Amaia}}
 
*{{flag|Amaia}}
 
*{{flag|Ohania}}
 
*{{flag|Ohania}}
 
*{{flag|Gushlia}}
 
*{{flag|Gushlia}}
 
*{{flag|Shohuan}}
 
*{{flag|Shohuan}}
 +
*{{flag|Jeehoop}}
 
*{{flag|Zinsha-Vogia}}}}
 
*{{flag|Zinsha-Vogia}}}}
 
|footnotes    = {{notelist}}
 
|footnotes    = {{notelist}}
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{{Vaniuans}}
 
{{Vaniuans}}
 +
 +
==Name==
 +
The endonym of the Great Horde has varied greatly throughout the region, the empire has been commonly recorded as ''Mîḍaran'' meaning “land of kings” today known as ''Mîsharzan'', however, following diplomatic formality, the empire addressed itself as ''Shâhâshar''  “Âshar’s realm”.
  
 
==History==
 
==History==
Line 87: Line 92:
 
===Fall===
 
===Fall===
 
==Culture==
 
==Culture==
 +
===Asharid Architecture===
 +
Early Asharid architecture drew on the emphasis of semi-nomadic lifestyle, this changed as the empire transitioned into a more metropolitan organised-state where sedentarism became the norm. Asharid architecture is considered to be a blend of trans-Vaniuan traditions and early Khalkali architecture. It is known for making extensive use of coloured tiles, prominently blue and turquoise where complex geometric patterns decorated the facades of buildings. The interior was in most cases gifted with stucco relief and intricate paintings. Asharid architecture is considered as a whole to be the pinnacle of Sayanic art in Vaniua. Spectacular and religious edifices remain as a legacy to the grandeur of the Asharid tradition, later empires such as the Balak empire helped to disseminate the many variants of Asharid architecture throughout its possessions giving rise to the celebrated Huzra (or ''Hozara'') school of architecture. Asharid architecture started with the conquest and eventual reconstruction of the city of Qomandar in present-day Komania and culminated with the revitalisation and construction of the seven Holiest Shrines and the imperial palace of Yiharsah (shining place, place of light) in Samadar and later on in Shozasan. Ashar’s dominance of the region strengthened the influence of Sayanic art as a whole and became a source of inspiration in neighbouring regions, prominently western Parshita.
 +
 +
[[File:Asharid architecture.png|600px|thumb|center|Colored tiles and complex geometrical patterns, common features in Asharid Architecture.]]
 +
 
===Language===
 
===Language===
 +
 +
With the conquest of Tarkhan and the eastern lands, the empire gradually embraced the local languages. Under Âshar’s reign the ''Asawân'' language “golden tongue” became widely used in the court and was enforced upon the nobility, ''Asawân'' was itself the Koman variant spoken by the Ashars. The language maintained a high degree of prestige within the court and was constantly promoted by the ruling Mezarams.
 +
 +
Other languages maintained a high degree of prestige throughout the empire, Jazaghan or the “Merchant tongue” became official and was appointed as the language of merchants and trading, this was promoted with several enactments made by Emperor Shughshudara. The conquest of Balak lands led an influx of Balak nobles to the court. With the conquest of Herayân, strategic points of trade gave an edge to trade inland.
 +
 +
Ancient Ohanian was to a lesser degree prestigious within the court. It was associated with the clergy and Sayanic praising, many chants and prayers were recited in Ohanian, however, this took a drastic turn with the enthronement of Emperor Shughshudara. As Ohanian kingdoms resented the growth of Zarasaism, the strongly religious ruler dishonored Ohanian and gradually replaced liturgical books and praisings with Shavani (a highly liturgical variant of Middle Koman). Ancient Ohanian therefore declined in use and was considered obsolete by the turn of the 1700s.
 +
 +
Languages spoken by commoners included various forms of Middle Koman better known as ''Nashaghan'' which served as lingua franca throughout the empire, this was actively promoted by the court, and its official status was enacted in 1480. Other languages included Amaian-Zwazwani languages, Tarkhani languages, Mishari, several Balak variants, Kaatian, Ziimen languages, Rasha, Vogian, among others.
 +
 
===Literature===
 
===Literature===
====Classical Koman====
 
====Nashaghan====
 
====Balak====
 
 
===Art===
 
===Art===
===architecture===
 
 
==Rulers==
 
==Rulers==
 
 
===Emperors===
 
===Emperors===
===Governors===
+
==Governemnt==
 +
The Great Horde was ruled by a ''Mezaram'' “emperor” who held total power over the state and its affairs, however, due to the multi-ethnic nature of the empire, a ''Mojam'' (government) was established under the name of ''Mîḍash Ṣûra'' “House of Kings” were all nobles of the empire partook on the creation of legislation and administration as well as a place for negotiation among the ruling states. The ''Mîḍash Ṣûra'' was comprised of the following ranks: ''Mîḍar'' “king, lord”, ''Khamaşan'' “prince”, ''Mazar'' “commander” and ''Bashyan'' similar to a Nawab. The titles of ''Mîsha'', ''Mazan'' and ''Moja'' were held independently and only given under certain circumstances.
 +
 
 +
The religious council known as ''Kharamam'' controlled and supervised the creation of ''Mâcas'', including religious taxes. Under Koman society, traditionally, a ''Hoja'' (religious ruler) would be elected as to represent the Kharamam and supervise religious affairs, however, following the theocratic nature of the Asharid dynasty, such practice was replaced in favour of Ashar’s tenets, where his dynasty would hold a prevailing religious title replacing the primary role of the Hoja. Such practice gave the Ashars an upper hand over religious matters and decorated the dynasty with holy irradiance.
 +
 
 +
==Religion==
 +
The Great Horde followed a policy of tolerance commonly known as the ''Ghizkhar'', itself based on the tolerance of religious minorities. However, religious minorities had to be recognised by the ''Mîḍash Ṣûra'' and such had to pass through the religious Qaramam for acceptance. The ''Ghizkhar'' did not grant full protection to religious minorities but instead focused on their recognition within the empire. Religious minorities were often targeted by the ''Hoja Qâḍat'' for conversion and assimilation, often through strategic policies and syncretism. Non-Zarasaists had fewer rights compared to Zarasaists, these included higher taxes in the market, specific areas of settlement and a limited number of pagan temples. Those willing to convert were alleviated from such burdens, including the removal of the ''Sâshqar'' (financial charge on permanent non-Zarasaist subjects).

Latest revision as of 17:37, 8 June 2020

Great Horde
Shâhâshar(Koman)
Shâhâshar
Mîzaran (Koman)
Mîḍaran[a]

 

c. 1289–1657


Flag

Motto
"Haṣağa ər Ṣağagam Yur"
"For God and the Heavenly Realm"
The Horde at its greatest extent. Dark green is territories and light green is areas subjugated to Āşar's raids.
Capital Qomandar (1289-1315)
Shozasan (1315-1380;1437-1451;1527-1583)
Samadar (1380-1437;1451-1527;1583-1657)
Languages Middle Koman (Official & court language, high literature)
Nashaghan (lingua franca)
Jazaghan (Military & trade dignitaries, court)
Amaian languages (court)
Vaniuan languages (court)
Religion
Government Theocratic Monarchy
Mezaram
 •  1289-1321 Âshar (first)
 •  1640-1657 Bashar Ghaywar (last)
Legislature Mîḍash Ṣûra (House of Kings)
Historical era Late Middle Ages
 •  Established c. 1289
 •  Disestablished 1657
Area
 •  1600 5,550,000 km² (2,142,867 sq mi)
Population
 •  1600 est. 50,000,000 
     Density 9 /km²  (23.3 /sq mi)
Currency Seqam
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Qoman Khanate
Kalkali Khanate
Oshar Dynasty
Surse Dynasty
Suryeh Dynasty
Sursaz Dynasty
Surshan Dynasty
Toroshan Dynasty
?
?
?
?
Today part of
  1. Their state followed the autonym Shâhâshar meaning "Âshar's realm.
Warning: Value not specified for "continent"

Name

The endonym of the Great Horde has varied greatly throughout the region, the empire has been commonly recorded as Mîḍaran meaning “land of kings” today known as Mîsharzan, however, following diplomatic formality, the empire addressed itself as Shâhâshar “Âshar’s realm”.

History

Rise

Fall

Culture

Asharid Architecture

Early Asharid architecture drew on the emphasis of semi-nomadic lifestyle, this changed as the empire transitioned into a more metropolitan organised-state where sedentarism became the norm. Asharid architecture is considered to be a blend of trans-Vaniuan traditions and early Khalkali architecture. It is known for making extensive use of coloured tiles, prominently blue and turquoise where complex geometric patterns decorated the facades of buildings. The interior was in most cases gifted with stucco relief and intricate paintings. Asharid architecture is considered as a whole to be the pinnacle of Sayanic art in Vaniua. Spectacular and religious edifices remain as a legacy to the grandeur of the Asharid tradition, later empires such as the Balak empire helped to disseminate the many variants of Asharid architecture throughout its possessions giving rise to the celebrated Huzra (or Hozara) school of architecture. Asharid architecture started with the conquest and eventual reconstruction of the city of Qomandar in present-day Komania and culminated with the revitalisation and construction of the seven Holiest Shrines and the imperial palace of Yiharsah (shining place, place of light) in Samadar and later on in Shozasan. Ashar’s dominance of the region strengthened the influence of Sayanic art as a whole and became a source of inspiration in neighbouring regions, prominently western Parshita.

Colored tiles and complex geometrical patterns, common features in Asharid Architecture.

Language

With the conquest of Tarkhan and the eastern lands, the empire gradually embraced the local languages. Under Âshar’s reign the Asawân language “golden tongue” became widely used in the court and was enforced upon the nobility, Asawân was itself the Koman variant spoken by the Ashars. The language maintained a high degree of prestige within the court and was constantly promoted by the ruling Mezarams.

Other languages maintained a high degree of prestige throughout the empire, Jazaghan or the “Merchant tongue” became official and was appointed as the language of merchants and trading, this was promoted with several enactments made by Emperor Shughshudara. The conquest of Balak lands led an influx of Balak nobles to the court. With the conquest of Herayân, strategic points of trade gave an edge to trade inland.

Ancient Ohanian was to a lesser degree prestigious within the court. It was associated with the clergy and Sayanic praising, many chants and prayers were recited in Ohanian, however, this took a drastic turn with the enthronement of Emperor Shughshudara. As Ohanian kingdoms resented the growth of Zarasaism, the strongly religious ruler dishonored Ohanian and gradually replaced liturgical books and praisings with Shavani (a highly liturgical variant of Middle Koman). Ancient Ohanian therefore declined in use and was considered obsolete by the turn of the 1700s.

Languages spoken by commoners included various forms of Middle Koman better known as Nashaghan which served as lingua franca throughout the empire, this was actively promoted by the court, and its official status was enacted in 1480. Other languages included Amaian-Zwazwani languages, Tarkhani languages, Mishari, several Balak variants, Kaatian, Ziimen languages, Rasha, Vogian, among others.

Literature

Art

Rulers

Emperors

Governemnt

The Great Horde was ruled by a Mezaram “emperor” who held total power over the state and its affairs, however, due to the multi-ethnic nature of the empire, a Mojam (government) was established under the name of Mîḍash Ṣûra “House of Kings” were all nobles of the empire partook on the creation of legislation and administration as well as a place for negotiation among the ruling states. The Mîḍash Ṣûra was comprised of the following ranks: Mîḍar “king, lord”, Khamaşan “prince”, Mazar “commander” and Bashyan similar to a Nawab. The titles of Mîsha, Mazan and Moja were held independently and only given under certain circumstances.

The religious council known as Kharamam controlled and supervised the creation of Mâcas, including religious taxes. Under Koman society, traditionally, a Hoja (religious ruler) would be elected as to represent the Kharamam and supervise religious affairs, however, following the theocratic nature of the Asharid dynasty, such practice was replaced in favour of Ashar’s tenets, where his dynasty would hold a prevailing religious title replacing the primary role of the Hoja. Such practice gave the Ashars an upper hand over religious matters and decorated the dynasty with holy irradiance.

Religion

The Great Horde followed a policy of tolerance commonly known as the Ghizkhar, itself based on the tolerance of religious minorities. However, religious minorities had to be recognised by the Mîḍash Ṣûra and such had to pass through the religious Qaramam for acceptance. The Ghizkhar did not grant full protection to religious minorities but instead focused on their recognition within the empire. Religious minorities were often targeted by the Hoja Qâḍat for conversion and assimilation, often through strategic policies and syncretism. Non-Zarasaists had fewer rights compared to Zarasaists, these included higher taxes in the market, specific areas of settlement and a limited number of pagan temples. Those willing to convert were alleviated from such burdens, including the removal of the Sâshqar (financial charge on permanent non-Zarasaist subjects).