Difference between revisions of "Koman language"

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Revision as of 17:54, 15 November 2017

Koman
Xālxārşē
Qālqārşē.png
Pronunciation[xɒ:lxɒrʂə:]
RegionVaniua
EthnicityKoman people
Native speakers47 million  (2015-2017)
Language family
Early forms:
Proto-Vaniuan
  • Proto-Eastern Vaniuan
    • Kalkali
      • Middle Koman
        • Classical Koman
          • Koman
DialectsWestern Koman · Torosh · Bishe
Writing systemVaniuan script, anciently Kalkali script
Official status
Official language in
 Komania (as Koman)
 Balakia (as Torosh)
 Nekhilia (as Bishe)
Regulated byState Academy of Linguistics
CWS codeDAD
A map showing the areas where Koman is mainly spoken.
Dark blue = Majority; light blue = Sizable minority

Koman (Xālxārşē, /xɒ:lxɒrʂə:/) is a Vaniuan language spoken in Komania. It has around 40 million native speakers and is mainly spoken by the Koman people in Komania and the Torosh region of Balakia. Koman belongs to the Kalkalic branch of the Vaniuan language family. Main influences can be attributed to Pre-Vaniuan and Mahavic languages with some loanwords mainly of Shohuanese and Amaian origin. The most noticeable distinctions between Koman and other Vaniuan languages is the large corpus of Mahavic loanwords and lack of gender which is only seen in certain pronouns.


Geographic distribution

Name

The language is natively known as Xālxārşē or Xālxār şēşdhēm, pronounced /xɒ:lxɒrʂə:/ or /xɒ:lxɒr ʂə:ʂðəm/ accordingly.

Classification

Koman is a member of the Kalkalic branch of the Vaniuan family of languages; the language itself is part of a dialectal continuum where mutual intelligibility can be seen in different degrees.

Koman has a basic degree of vowel harmony and is a fusional language which lacks any grammatical gender, its natural word order is SVO but can be written in SOV order in poetry or official documents.

Today modern Koman uses the Xālxār (Western Koman) dialect heavily based on its Classical predecessor as the standard variant, other dialects include the Bīşē and Tārāş varieties.

Dialects

The Koman language is comprised of 3 main varieties: Western Koman (Xālxār), Central (Bīşē) and Eastern (Tārāş), these are usually regarded as dialectal groupings comprising several subdivisions rather than individual dialects.

Western Koman

History

The first records of the earliest form of the language can be traced back to the 7th century where inscriptions in stone pillars were found in the eastern region of the northern Vaniuan steppes, thanks to archaeological evidence and early records from the inhabiting peoples of the region, it can be estimated that the Kali people spoke initially a variation of Old Mahavic but became gradually assimilated by their larger Vaniuan neighbours, who at the time spoke a late form of Proto-Eastern Vaniuan which due to the harsh environment lived equally as nomads. The increasing assimilation of Kali people led to the creation of a tribal confederation estimated to have been around 100-500CE which gave rise to the later forms of the Kalkali language and people.

Modern Koman is considered as a direct descendant of the later forms of the Kalkali language, the language of the Kalkali nomads who inhabited the northern steppes of Vaniua and of great literary development in the realms of Şī Āşar during and after the rise of the Great Horde. The now extinct Mahavic Oshar language, once spoken by the Oshar dynasty left profound influences on both levels of morphology and vocabulary. By the 17th century, Classical Koman arose as the common tongue of the Komans, Şādhëşkan Hacām, a prominent polymath, became the greatest representative of the Koman language, his efforts led the introduction of the language to the court and nobility, after his work in the book "Ëbëm Mothāh: Vā thum kādhulim " (Speech of the Common: Language of greatness) being renowned by the emperor himself. By the 18th century, a regularised version of the language was made based on the Jovaic dialectal grouping, having preserved most foreign loanwords because of matters of cultural heritage and conservatism.

The term "Koman" itself can vary depending on the dialect, before the 19th century, the language was known according to the name of the dialect spoken, this changed with the orders of prime minister Racan Ācom, who for matters of ethnic unification and nationalism, decided to unify the term. The most prominent names prior the unification were either "Kālyāghār" or "Jānva" with "Kāman" being used to refer to the dialect spoken in court.

The short-lived state of Kadhan used the term "Kāman" to refer to the language, with a high degree of Amaian loanwords seen prior to the 19th century.

Phonology

Consonants

The following tables lists the consonants and vowels of the standard Koshaivic dialect. The consonants enclosed in parentheses are considered as allophones.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Labio-velar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g q
Fricative β f θ ð s z ʒ ʂ ʐ x ʁ h
Affricate
Approximant j w
Rhotic r
Lateral app. l

Vowels

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i (i:) y u (u:)
Near-close
Close-mid e o (o:)
Mid ə
Open-mid
Near-open
Open ä ɒ

Phonotactics

Orthography

Grammar

Morphology

Literature

Writing system

Vocabulary

Examples

Seasons

English Koman
spring xam
summer kēr
autumn
winter şohma

Numbers

Number Koman Number Koman
0 10 xām
1 şe 20 sox xām
2 soxu 30 mez xām
3 meza 40 sah xām
4 sağa 50 şev xām
5 şev 60 bah xām
6 bako 70 şēh xām
7 şēhēn 80 yez xām
8 yeza 90 diti xām
9 dit 100 dena
1000 teşa

Colours

English Koman
black şērē
blue sāğadaş
brown shāğ
grey kēr
green şēğad
orange TBA
pink şēnēdēş
purple TBA
red tēsē
white shāna
yellow şāza

Syntax