Difference between revisions of "Koman language"

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{{Infobox language
 
{{Infobox language
 
|name          = Koman
 
|name          = Koman
|altname      = Qāmanşe
+
|altname      = Qamağan
|nativename    = {{cs|DAD|. Qāmanşe .}}  
+
|nativename    = {{cs|DAD|. Qamağan .}}  
|pronunciation = [xɒmänʂe]
+
|pronunciation = [xɒmäʁän]
 
|states (state) = [[Komania]]
 
|states (state) = [[Komania]]
 
|region        =  Vaniua
 
|region        =  Vaniua
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|posteriori    = no
 
|posteriori    = no
 
|dia1          =
 
|dia1          =
|dialects      = Western Koman · Torosh · Bishe
+
|dialects      = Western Koman · Tarash · Sakhya · Oshar · Shehiz · Nehir · Kashiri · Baybar · Morah · Shavani · Samadar
 
|script        = [[Vaniuan script]], [[Shisadam script]]
 
|script        = [[Vaniuan script]], [[Shisadam script]]
|nation        =  <br />{{flag|Komania}} (as [[Western Koman|Koman]])<br />{{flag|Balakia}}  (as [[Torosh language|Torosh]]) <br />{{flag|Nekhilia}}  (as [[Bishe language|Bishe]])
+
|nation        =  <br />{{flag|Komania}} (as [[Western Koman|Koman]])<br />{{flag|Balakia}}  (as [[Tarash language|Tarash]]) <br />{{flag|Nekhilia}}  (as [[Sakhya language|Sakhya]])
 
|agency        =  State Academy of Linguistics
 
|agency        =  State Academy of Linguistics
 
|iso3          = DAD
 
|iso3          = DAD
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|imagecaption  =  
 
|imagecaption  =  
 
|imageheader  =  
 
|imageheader  =  
|map          = Dahaz Lenguasphere3.png
+
|map          = Koman language diaspora.png
|mapsize      =  
+
|mapsize      = 200px
 
|mapalt        = A map showing the areas where Koman is mainly spoken.
 
|mapalt        = A map showing the areas where Koman is mainly spoken.
|mapcaption    = Dark blue = Majority; light blue = Sizable minority
+
|mapcaption    = {{center|Location of Koman speakers in [[Vaniua]]}} {{Legend|#0080FF|regions where Koman is the language of the majority}} {{Legend|#88C4FF|regions where Koman is the language of a significant minority}}
 
}}
 
}}
  
'''Koman''' (''Qālxārşē'', /xɒlxɒrʂə/) is a [[Vaniuan language]] spoken in [[Komania]]. It has around 40 million native speakers and is mainly spoken by the Koman people in [[Komania]] and the Torosh region of [[Balakia]]. Koman belongs to the Kalkalic branch of the Vaniuan language family. Main influences can be attributed to Pre-Vaniuan and Mahavic languages with some loanwords mainly of Shohuanese and Amaian origin. The most noticeable distinctions between Koman and other Vaniuan languages is the large corpus of Mahavic loanwords and lack of gender which is only seen in certain pronouns.
+
{{Komans}}
 +
 
 +
'''Koman''' ({{cs|DAD|. Qamağan .}}; ''Khamağan'', /xɒmäʁän/) also known by its endonym ''Mêzramağan'' ({{cs|DAD|. Mêzramağan .}}; "imperial tongue"), is one of the [[Kalkalic]] languages within the [[Eastern Vaniuan]] branch of the [[Vaniuan]] language family. It is mainly spoken in [[Komania]] and [[Balakia]] (known as ''[[Torosh]] Koman'') along with substantial diasporas in [[Nekhilia]], [[Gushlia]], [[Kaatkukia]] and [[Ohania]] under the name of several varieties. It is written in the [[Koman alphabet]], a modified variant of the [[Vaniuan alphabet]] and traditionaly with the [[Shisadam]] script, thought to be related to the [[Vaniuan alphabet]].
 +
 
 +
The Koman language is classified as a continuation of [[Middle Koman]], the official and literary language of the [[Great Horde]], itself from a continuation of varieties of the [[Kalkalic]] language also known as [[Old Koman]], the language of prestige of the [[Kalkali Khanate]]. While preserving a somewhat archaic consonantal structure, its grammar is considered to be relatively more simplified than other [[Vaniuan]] languages while being similar, one of its prominent characteristics is the extensive use of vowel harmony and the total loss of animacy, uncommon features among [[Vaniuan]] languages (?). The western variant of Koman spoken throughout [[Komania]] known as [[Qaman]] (not to confuse with [[Qamandi]]) gets its name from its origin at the first capital of the [[Great Horde]], ''[[Qamandar]]'' (modern-day [[?]] region), hence the name Koman (''Qaman'').
 +
 
 +
There are around 48 million Koman speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in [[Komania]] and [[Balakia]] and either regional or minority status in [[Ohania]], [[Nekhilia]], [[Gushlia]] and [[Kaatkukia]].  
 +
 
 +
Koman has had substantial influences (mainly lexical) on some neighbouring languages, mainly [[Balak]] and [[?]] as well as neighbouring [[Kalkalic]] languages and [[Mishar]] while borrowing from [[Amaian]] languages and most recently from [[Shohuanese]]. Koman has been mainly influenced by now extinct [[Pre-Vaniuan]] languages, retaining lexical terms otherwise lost, other influences can be attributed to the [[Kashisan]] and [[Amaian]] languages.
 +
 
 +
Holding a status of prestige since the rise of the [[Kalkali Khanate]], the language has developed a rich literary tradition while exercising prominent influence over the [[The House of Kings]] during the [[Great Horde]] as it became the language of court and elite, creating a highly developed and conservative dialect, later becoming the core for [[Classical Koman]] while causing a divergence among other varieties due to policies of elitism. Some prominent works of
 +
[[Koman literature]] are the [[Hirim-e Shən]] of [[Bashar]], encompassing a collection of religious epics and poetries, the epic [[Qazḍat]] of [[Şawdarkan]] and several works of [[Heraqan]] such as the [[Iəbəm-e Wəşə]] and [[Yereşden]] or [[Usağdan]] by [[Qazkan]].  
  
 
<!-- Example categories/headings:  
 
<!-- Example categories/headings:  
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|blue || sāğadaş
 
|blue || sāğadaş
 
|-
 
|-
|brown || shāğ
+
|brown || shāgh
 
|-
 
|-
 
  |grey || kēr
 
  |grey || kēr
 
|-
 
|-
|green || şēğad
+
|green || şēdan
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|orange || TBA
 
|orange || TBA
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|pink || şēnēdēş
 
|pink || şēnēdēş
 
|-  
 
|-  
|purple || TBA
+
|purple || hāsādaş
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|red || tēsē
 
|red || tēsē

Latest revision as of 18:42, 10 September 2019

Koman
Qamağan
. Qamağan .
Pronunciation[xɒmäʁän]
RegionVaniua
EthnicityKoman people
Native speakers48 million  (2015-2017)
Language family
Early forms:
Proto-Vaniuan
  • Proto-Eastern Vaniuan
    • Kalkali
      • Middle Koman
        • Classical Koman
          • Koman
DialectsWestern Koman · Tarash · Sakhya · Oshar · Shehiz · Nehir · Kashiri · Baybar · Morah · Shavani · Samadar
Writing systemVaniuan script, Shisadam script
Official status
Official language in
 Komania (as Koman)
 Balakia (as Tarash)
 Nekhilia (as Sakhya)
Regulated byState Academy of Linguistics
CWS codeDAD
A map showing the areas where Koman is mainly spoken.
Location of Koman speakers in Vaniua
  regions where Koman is the language of the majority
  regions where Koman is the language of a significant minority

Koman (. Qamağan .; Khamağan, /xɒmäʁän/) also known by its endonym Mêzramağan (. Mêzramağan .; "imperial tongue"), is one of the Kalkalic languages within the Eastern Vaniuan branch of the Vaniuan language family. It is mainly spoken in Komania and Balakia (known as Torosh Koman) along with substantial diasporas in Nekhilia, Gushlia, Kaatkukia and Ohania under the name of several varieties. It is written in the Koman alphabet, a modified variant of the Vaniuan alphabet and traditionaly with the Shisadam script, thought to be related to the Vaniuan alphabet.

The Koman language is classified as a continuation of Middle Koman, the official and literary language of the Great Horde, itself from a continuation of varieties of the Kalkalic language also known as Old Koman, the language of prestige of the Kalkali Khanate. While preserving a somewhat archaic consonantal structure, its grammar is considered to be relatively more simplified than other Vaniuan languages while being similar, one of its prominent characteristics is the extensive use of vowel harmony and the total loss of animacy, uncommon features among Vaniuan languages (?). The western variant of Koman spoken throughout Komania known as Qaman (not to confuse with Qamandi) gets its name from its origin at the first capital of the Great Horde, Qamandar (modern-day ? region), hence the name Koman (Qaman).

There are around 48 million Koman speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Komania and Balakia and either regional or minority status in Ohania, Nekhilia, Gushlia and Kaatkukia.

Koman has had substantial influences (mainly lexical) on some neighbouring languages, mainly Balak and ? as well as neighbouring Kalkalic languages and Mishar while borrowing from Amaian languages and most recently from Shohuanese. Koman has been mainly influenced by now extinct Pre-Vaniuan languages, retaining lexical terms otherwise lost, other influences can be attributed to the Kashisan and Amaian languages.

Holding a status of prestige since the rise of the Kalkali Khanate, the language has developed a rich literary tradition while exercising prominent influence over the The House of Kings during the Great Horde as it became the language of court and elite, creating a highly developed and conservative dialect, later becoming the core for Classical Koman while causing a divergence among other varieties due to policies of elitism. Some prominent works of Koman literature are the Hirim-e Shən of Bashar, encompassing a collection of religious epics and poetries, the epic Qazḍat of Şawdarkan and several works of Heraqan such as the Iəbəm-e Wəşə and Yereşden or Usağdan by Qazkan.


Geographic distribution

Name

The language is natively known as Qālxārşē or Qālxār şēşdhēm, pronounced /xɒlxɒrʂə/ or /xɒlxɒr ʂəʂðəm/ accordingly.

Classification

Koman is a member of the Kalkalic branch of the Vaniuan family of languages; the language itself is part of a dialectal continuum where mutual intelligibility can be seen in different degrees.

Koman has a basic degree of vowel harmony and is a fusional language which lacks any grammatical gender, its natural word order is SVO but can be written in SOV order in poetry or official documents.

Today modern Koman uses the Qālxār (Western Koman) dialect heavily based on its Classical predecessor as the standard variant, other dialects include the Bīşē and Tārāş varieties.

Dialects

The Koman language is comprised of 3 main varieties: Western Koman (Qālxār), Central (Bīşē) and Eastern (Tārāş), these are usually regarded as dialectal groupings comprising several subdivisions rather than individual dialects.

Western Koman

History

The first records of the earliest form of the language can be traced back to the 7th century where inscriptions in stone pillars were found in the eastern region of the northern Vaniuan steppes, thanks to archaeological evidence and early records from the inhabiting peoples of the region, it can be estimated that the Kali people spoke initially a variation of Old Mahavic but became gradually assimilated by their larger Vaniuan neighbours, who at the time spoke a late form of Proto-Eastern Vaniuan which due to the harsh environment lived equally as nomads. The increasing assimilation of Kali people led to the creation of a tribal confederation estimated to have been around 100-500CE which gave rise to the later forms of the Kalkali language and people.

Modern Koman is considered as a direct descendant of the later forms of the Kalkali language, the language of the Kalkali nomads who inhabited the northern steppes of Vaniua and of great literary development in the realms of Şī Āşar during and after the rise of the Great Horde. The now extinct Mahavic Oshar language, once spoken by the Oshar dynasty left profound influences on both levels of morphology and vocabulary. By the 17th century, Classical Koman arose as the common tongue of the Komans, Şādhëşkan Hacām, a prominent polymath, became the greatest representative of the Koman language, his efforts led the introduction of the language to the court and nobility, after his work in the book "Ëbëm Mothāh: Vā thum kādhulim " (Speech of the Common: Language of greatness) being renowned by the emperor himself. By the 18th century, a regularised version of the language was made based on the Jovaic dialectal grouping, having preserved most foreign loanwords because of matters of cultural heritage and conservatism.

The term "Koman" itself can vary depending on the dialect, before the 19th century, the language was known according to the name of the dialect spoken, this changed with the orders of prime minister Racan Ācom, who for matters of ethnic unification and nationalism, decided to unify the term. The most prominent names prior the unification were either "Kālyāghār" or "Jānva" with "Kāman" being used to refer to the dialect spoken in court.

The short-lived state of Kadhan used the term "Kāman" to refer to the language, with a high degree of Amaian loanwords seen prior to the 19th century.

Phonology

Consonants

The following tables lists the consonants and vowels of the standard Koshaivic dialect. The consonants enclosed in parentheses are considered as allophones.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Labio-velar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g q
Fricative β f θ ð s z ʒ ʂ ʐ x ʁ h
Affricate
Approximant j w
Rhotic r
Lateral app. l

Vowels

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i (i:) y u (u:)
Near-close
Close-mid e o (o:)
Mid ə
Open-mid
Near-open
Open ä ɒ

Phonotactics

Orthography

Grammar

Morphology

Literature

Writing system

Vocabulary

Examples

Seasons

English Koman
spring qam
summer kēr
autumn
winter şohma

Numbers

Number Koman Number Koman
0 10 qām
1 şe 20 sox qām
2 soxu 30 mez qām
3 meza 40 sah qām
4 sağa 50 şew qām
5 şew 60 bah qām
6 bako 70 şēh qām
7 şēhēn 80 yez qām
8 yeza 90 diti qām
9 dit 100 dena
1000 teşa

Colours

English Koman
black şērē
blue sāğadaş
brown shāgh
grey kēr
green şēdan
orange TBA
pink şēnēdēş
purple hāsādaş
red tēsē
white shāna
yellow şāza

Syntax