Koman language

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Koman
Hālhārşē , Hālhār şēşdhēm
Hālhārşē
Pronunciation[hɒlhɒ'r ʂə:ʂðə'm]
RegionVaniu
EthnicityKoman people
Native speakers40 million  (2015-2017)
Language family
Early forms:
Proto-Vaniuan
  • Proto-Eastern Vaniuan
    • Kalkali
      • Middle Koman
        • Classical Koman
          • Koman
DialectsTorosh, Shereva and Jovaic dialects
Writing systemVaniuan script, Mahavic script
Official status
Official language in Komania
Regulated byImperial Agency of Linguistics
CWS codeDAD
A map showing the areas where Koman is mainly spoken, exluding foreign Koman.
Dark blue = Majority; light blue = Sizable minority

Koman (Hālhārşē, /hɒlhɒ'rʂə/) is a Vaniuan language spoken in Komania. It has 40 million native speakers and is mainly spoken by the Koman people in Komania and elsewhere in Vaniu. Koman belongs to the Kalkalic branch of the Vaniuan language family. Main influences can be attributed to Pre-Vaniuan and Mahavic languages with some loanwords mainly of Shohuanese and Amaian origin. The most noticeable distinctions between Koman and other Vaniuan languages is the large corpus of Mahavic loanwords and lack of gender which is only seen in certain pronouns.


Name

The language itself is natively known as Hālhārşē or Hālhār şēşdhēm, pronounced /hɒlhɒ'rʂə/ or /hɒlhɒ'r ʂə:ʂðə'm/ accordingly.

Classification

Koman is a member of the Kalkalic branch of the Vaniuan family of languages; the language itself is part of a dialectal continuum where mutual intelligibility can be seen in different degrees.

Koman has a basic degree of vowel harmony and is a fusional language which lacks any grammatical gender, its word order is SVO but can be written in SOV order in poetry or official documents.

Today modern Koman uses the foğān-Hālhārşē (Western Koman) dialect heavily based on its Classical predecessor, which derived from the Oshar dialect and spoken by the majority, other dialects include the Şērēva, Tārāş and Jovaic varieties.

History

The first records of the earliest form of the language can be traced back to the 7th century where inscriptions in stone pillars were found in the eastern region of the northern Vaniuan steppes, thanks to archaeological evidence and early records from the inhabiting peoples of the region, it can be estimated that the Kali people spoke initially a variation of Old Mahavic but became gradually assimilated by their larger Vaniuan neighbours, who at the time spoke a late form of Proto-Eastern Vaniuan which due to the harsh environment lived equally as nomads. The increasing assimilation of Kali people led to the creation of a tribal confederation estimated to have been around 100-500CE which gave rise to the later forms of the Kalkali language and people.

Modern Koman is considered as a direct descendant of the later forms of the Kalkali language, the language of the Kalkali nomads who inhabited the northern steppes of Vaniua and of great literary development in the realms of Şī Āşar during and after the rise of the Great Horde. The now extinct Mahavic Oshar language, once spoken by the Oshar dynasty left profound influences on both levels of morphology and vocabulary. By the 17th century, Classical Koman arose as the common tongue of the Komans, Şādhëşkan Hacām, a prominent polymath, became the greatest representative of the Koman language, his efforts led the introduction of the language to the court and nobility, after his work in the book "Ëbëm Mothāh: Vā thum kādhulim " (Speech of the Common: Language of greatness) being renowned by the emperor himself. By the 18th century, a regularised version of the language was made based on the Jovaic dialectal grouping, having preserved most foreign loanwords because of matters of cultural heritage and conservatism.

The term "Koman" itself can vary depending on the dialect, before the 19th century, the language was known according to the name of the dialect spoken, this changed with the orders of prime minister Racan Ācom, who for matters of ethnic unification and nationalism, decided to unify the term. The most prominent names prior the unification were either "Kālyāghār" or "Jānva" with "Kāman" being used to refer to the dialect spoken in court.

The short-lived state of Kadhan used the term "Kāman" to refer to the language, with a high degree of Amaian loanwords seen prior to the 19th century.

Phonology

Consonants

The following tables lists the consonants and vowels of the standard Koshaivic dialect. The consonants enclosed in parentheses are considered as allophones.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Labio-velar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g q
Fricative β f θ ð s z ʒ ʂ ʐ x ʁ h
Affricate
Approximant j w
Rhotic r
Lateral app. l

Vowels

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i (i:) y u (u:)
Near-close
Close-mid e o (o:)
Mid ə
Open-mid
Near-open
Open ä ɒ

Phonotactics

Orthography

Grammar

Morphology

Literature

Vocabulary

Numbers

Number Koman Number Koman
0 10 xām
1 şe 20 sox xām
2 soxu 30 mez xām
3 meza 40 sah xām
4 sağa 50 şev xām
5 şev 60 bah xām
6 bako 70 şēh xām
7 şēhēn 80 yez xām
8 yeza 90 diti xām
9 dit 100 dena
1000 teşa

Colours

English Koman
black şērē
blue TBA
brown TBA
grey TBA
green TBA
orange TBA
pink TBA
purple TBA
red tēthē
white jāna
yellow TBA

Syntax