Difference between revisions of "Modern Garuhish"

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{{OOD}}
<!-- {{cs|MGQ|gaqohe}} -->
{{Infobox language
{{Infobox language
|name          = Standard Garuhish
|name          = Standard Garuhish
|altname      =  
|altname      =  
|nativename    = Gueruxilfol
|nativename    = Gueruxilfol
|pronunciation = gəɾu'xilfol
|pronunciation = [gəɾu'xilfol]
|states =  
|states =  
|region        =  
|region        =  
Line 12: Line 13:
|speakers      =  
|speakers      =  
|date          =  
|date          =  
|familycolor  =  
|familycolor  = tep
|fam1          = Garuhish
|fam1         = Trans-Püzimm
|fam2          = Saru-Asuran
|fam3         = Garuhish
|ancestor2 = Middle Garuhish
|ancestor2 = Middle Garuhish
|ancestor = Proto-Garuhish
|ancestor = [[Proto-Garuhish]]
|posteriori    =  
|posteriori    =  
|dia1          = Dialects
|dia1          = Dialects
|dialects      = Western Garuhish, Central Garuhish, Eastern Garuhish
|dialects      = {{plainlist|
* [[Western Garuhish]]
* [[Central Garuhish]]
* [[Eastern Garuhish]]}}
|script        = (WIP)
|script        = (WIP)
|nation        = Garohe
|nation        = [[Garohe]]
|agency        =  
|agency        =  
|iso3          = MGQ
|iso3          = MGQ
Line 33: Line 39:
|mapcaption    =
|mapcaption    =
}}
}}
Modern Standard Garuhish (Modern Standard Garuhish: ''Gueruxilfol'', IPA: '''[gəɾu'xilfol]''') is a Saru-Asuran language spoken in the island nation of [[Garohe]], spoken predominantly on the main island Akuvi, and as a second language in the island of Onakia, where the Jutean-Garuhish Creole is preferred.
The standard variety of the language, also known as "City Garuhish", is spoken primarily in the big cities and settlements in Garohe, especially in it's capital city of Tseumuz {subject to change}; as well as by most foreigners who decide to learn the language.
Standard Garuhish is mainly used in extremely formal situations. The government uses the standard when making public announcements and diplomatic visits and meeting with other countries; however, each individual province is free to use its main dialect when making announcements to its native populace. A great deal of publicity and ad campaigns are also made using the standard, to reach a wider audience.


==Background==


The standard is also used when writing scientific papers, news articles (in the case of the main cities and/or nation-wide news networks) and official documents.
The aforementioned dialects are [[Western Garuhish]], [[Central Garuhish]] and [[Eastern Garuhish]].
<!-- ==Summary== -->
<!-- Design goals, inspiration, ideas, who speaks it?, when was it created?, where does it come from?, any peculiarities? -->
<!-- Design goals, inspiration, ideas, who speaks it?, when was it created?, where does it come from?, any peculiarities? -->
<!-- Example categories/headings:  
<!-- Example categories/headings:  


Line 63: Line 81:
! style="width: 68px; " |Bilabial
! style="width: 68px; " |Bilabial
! style="width: 68px; " |Labio-dental
! style="width: 68px; " |Labio-dental
! style="width: 68px; " |Dental
! style="width: 68px; " |Alveolar
! style="width: 68px; " |Alveolar
! style="width: 68px; " |Post-alveolar
! style="width: 68px; " |Post-alveolar
! style="width: 68px; " |Palatal
! style="width: 68px; " |Labio-Velar
! style="width: 68px; " |Velar
! style="width: 68px; " |Velar
! style="width: 68px; " |Uvular
! style="width: 68px; " |Glottal
! style="width: 68px; " |Glottal
|-
|-
! style="" |Nasal  
! style="" |Nasal  
| m
| m
|
|  
|  
| n
| n
|  
|  
|
|
|
|  
|  
|  
|
|-
|-
! style="" |Plosive
! style="" |Plosive
| p b
| p b
|
|  
|  
| t d
| t d
|  
|  
|
|
| k g
| k g
|
|
|
|-
|-
! style="" |Fricative
! style="" |Fricative
|  
|  
| f v
| f v
| θ ð
| s z
| s z
| ʃ ʒ
| ʃ ʒ
| x ɣ
| ç ʝ
|
|
| χ
| h
| h
|-
|-
! style="" |Approximant
! style="" |Affricate
|  
|  
|  
|  
|  
|  
| l
| t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
|  
|  
|
|
|
|
|-
! style="" |Lateral
|  
|  
|  
|  
|-
| l
! style="" |Trill
|  
|  
|  
|  
|
|
|
|
|-
! style="" |Approximant
|  
|  
| r*
|  
|  
| ɹ
|  
|  
|  
|  
| w
| ɰ ɰ̥
|
|
|-
|-
! style="" |Flap
! style="" |Trill
|
|  
|  
|  
|  
|  
|  
| ɾ
|  
|  
|  
|  
|  
|  
| ʀ
|
|}
<br>
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 540px; text-align:center;"
! style=""| Blends
| gb
| kp
| ct
| ɟd
| pç
| bʝ
|}
|}
*: Only occurs at the beginning of words.


===Vowels===
===Vowels===
Line 130: Line 181:
! style="width: 90px; "|
! style="width: 90px; "|
! style="width: 90px; " |Front
! style="width: 90px; " |Front
! style="width: 90px; " |Near-Front
! style="width: 90px; " |Central
! style="width: 90px; " |Central
! style="width: 90px; " |Back
! style="width: 90px; " |Back
|-
|-
! style="" |Close
! style="" |Close
| i y
| i i: y
|  
|  
| u
|
| ɯ ɯ: u u:
|-
|-
! style="" |Close-mid
! style="" |Near-Close
| e ø
|  
|  
| o
| ɪ
|
|
|-
! style="" |Close-Mid
| e e:
|
|
| o o:
|-
|-
! style="" |Mid
! style="" |Mid
|  
|  
|
| ə
| ə
|  
|  
|-
! style="" |Open-mid
|
|
| ɔ:
|-
|-
! style="" |Near-open
! style="" |Near-open
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|  
|  
|  
|  
|
|-
|-
! style="" |Open
! style="" |Open
| a
| a a:
|  
|  
|
| ɑ
| ɑ
|}
|}
<br>
Standard Garuhish stress is always placed on the penultimate syllable of the word, and the stress always falls on the root morpheme of the word, regardless of any affixes present..
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 540px; text-align:center;"
! style=""| Polyphthongs
| ɐu
| ɪu
| ɜo
| ɜi
| ɐi
| ɔu
| ɐe
| ɔi
| ʊa
| ʊo
| ɪe
| ɪa
| ɪo
|}


===Phonotactics===
===Phonotactics===
<!-- Explain the consonant clusters and vowel clusters that are permissible for use in the language. For example, "st" is an allowed consonant cluster in English while onset "ng" isn't. -->
<!-- Explain the consonant clusters and vowel clusters that are permissible for use in the language. For example, "st" is an allowed consonant cluster in English while onset "ng" isn't. -->
 
{None as of now}
===Orthography===
===Orthography===
<!--Explain your conlang's alphabet. Use the International Phonetic Alphabet to describe the sounds of your language. If you are unsure on how to use IPA then visit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet and read up. -->
<!--Explain your conlang's alphabet. Use the International Phonetic Alphabet to describe the sounds of your language. If you are unsure on how to use IPA then visit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet and read up. -->
The following is a table containing the IPA values for Modern Standard Garuhish and its corresponding letter in the script {when finished}, as well as the romanization.


Script is WIP.
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 1400px; text-align:center;"
| /m/
| /n/
| /p/
| /b/
| /t/
| /d/
| /k/
| /g/
| /f/
| /v/
| /s/
| /s̻/
| /z/
| /ʃ/
| /ʒ/
| /ç/
| /ʝ/
| /χ/
| /h/
| /t͡ʃ/
| /d͡ʒ/
| /l/
| /ɹ/
| /w/
| /ɰ/
| /ɰ̥/
| /ʀ/
| /gb/
| /kp/
| /ct/
| /ɟd/
| /pç/
| /bʝ/
| /i/
| /i:/
| /y/
| /ɯ/
| /ɯ:/
| /u/
| /u:/
| /ɪ/
| /e/
| /e:/
| /o/
| /o:/
| /ə/
| /æ/
| /a/
| /a:/
| /ɑ/
|-
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
| -
|-
| m
| n
| p
| b
| t
| d
| k
| g
| f
| v
| s
| ş
| z
| ś
| ź
| c
| j
| x
| h
| ṭ
| ḍ
| l
| r
| w
| gg
| kk
| ř
| bb
| pp
| tt
| dd
| ṗ
| ḅ
| i
| ï
| ú
| y
| ÿ
| u
| ü
| í
| e
| ë
| o
| ö
| é
| á
| a
| ä
| ó
|}
{Script is WIP}
 
'''Anything beyond this point is outdated, and is most likely going to completely change'''


==Grammar==
==Grammar==
===Morphology===
===Morphology===
<!-- How do the words in your language look? How do you derive words from others? Do you have cases? Are verbs inflected? Do nouns differ from adjectives? Do adjectives differ from verbs? Etc. -->
<!-- How do the words in your language look? How do you derive words from others? Do you have cases? Are verbs inflected? Do nouns differ from adjectives? Do adjectives differ from verbs? Etc. -->
Derivation in Modern Garuhish (in it's current state) is a cacophony and a clusterfuck of nonsense created by the fact that at the time of its conception, I had no idea about how to derive stuff. It will be fixed in the (hopefully) near future.
===Cases===
Modern Standard Garuhish has 18 grammatical cases, in singular and plural forms:
{{plainlist|
* Nominative
* Accusative
* Genitive
* Possessed (used in conjunction with the Genitive case)
* Inessive
* Ectessive
* Intrative
* Circumlative
* Subessive
* Superessive
* Ablative
* Andative
* Antessive
* Postessive
* Sociative
* Abessive
* Instrumental
* Qualitative (used as a way to express color)}}


For all of the above, if a noun is uncountable, the plural forms do not apply.
===Adjectives===
Adjectives follow the noun they are modifying
To form adjectives, the following rules are applied:
{{plainlist|
* If the last vowel in the noun is '''o''', suffix the noun with '''a''', and vice-versa.
* If the last vowel in the noun is '''u''', suffix the noun with '''e''', and vice-versa.
* If the last vowel in the noun is '''y''', suffix the noun with '''i''', and vice-versa.}}
===Verbs===
To form verbs, the following rules are applied:
{{plainlist|
* Suffix the noun with '''br''' when it ends with '''b''', or '''m'''.
* Suffix the noun with '''dr''' when it ends with '''d''', '''dh''', or '''n'''.
* Suffix the noun with '''fr''' when it ends with '''f''', or '''c'''.
* Suffix the noun with '''gr''' when it ends with '''g''', or '''z'''.
* Suffix the noun with '''kr''' when it ends with '''k''', or '''l'''.
* Suffix the noun with '''pr''' when it ends with '''p''', or '''s'''.
* Suffix the noun with '''vr''' when it ends with '''v''', or '''j'''.
* Suffix the noun with '''tr''' when it ends with '''t''', '''th''', or '''r'''.
* Suffix the noun with '''qr''' when it ends with '''q''', or '''h''', if before '''o''', '''u''', or '''y'''.
* Suffix the noun with '''xr''' when it ends with '''x''', or '''h''', if before '''a''', '''e''', or '''i'''.}}
Verbs are conjugated by the following:
{{plainlist|
* Singular Number
* Plural Number
* First Person
* Second Person
* Third Person
* Past Tense
* Present Tense
* Future Tense
* Imperative Mood
* Subjunctive Mood (future subjunctive is used as a conditional mood)
* Indicative Mood}}
===Particles===
There are several particles in Modern Garuhish, used to modify nouns, pronouns and verbs, they are:
{{plainlist|
* Eminentive: '''-sie'''
* Adverbializer: '''-fat'''
* Agentive (non-human): '''-then'''
* Agentive (human): '''-zif''
* Able Tense: '''ru-'''
* Able Tense (negative): '''glo-'''
* Continuous Aspect: '''pi-'''
* Passive Voice: '''ma-'''
* Interrogative: '''go-'''
* Negative: '''ku-'''
* Positive: '''ni-'''
* Reflexive: '''-oed'''
* Singular Definite Article: '''ug-'''
* Plural Definite Article: '''ak-'''
===The articles "ug-" and "ak-"===
These articles have some pretty interesting mutation patterns when prefixed onto a noun; these patterns are shown in the following table:
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 200px; text-align:center;"
! ug-
! ak-
|-
| gb > mb
| kb > mp
|-
| gc > dj
| kc > tc
|-
| gd > nd
| kd > nt
|-
| gdh > d
| kdh > t
|-
| gf > mv
| kf > mf
|-
| gg > k
| kg > nk
|-
| gh > g
| kh > k
|-
| gj > dj
| kj > tc
|-
| gk > ng
| kk > k
|-
| gl > gl
| kl > kl
|-
| gm > gm
| km > km
|-
| gn > gn
| kn > kn
|-
| gp > mb
| kp > mp
|-
| gq > x
| kq > x
|-
| gr > gr
| kr > kr
|-
| gs > dz
| ks > ts
|-
| gt > nd
| kt > nt
|-
| gth > d
| kth > t
|-
| gv > mv
| kf > mf
|-
| gx > q
| kx > q
|-
| gz > dz
| kz > ts
|}
<!-- Here are some example subcategories:
<!-- Here are some example subcategories:


Line 205: Line 547:


===Syntax===
===Syntax===
 
Word order in Modern Garuhish is free, mostly due to the vast number of grammatical cases; however, traditionally, the word order is VSO.
<!-- Example: Word order, qualifiers, determinatives, branching, etc. -->
<!-- Example: Word order, qualifiers, determinatives, branching, etc. -->


[[Category:Languages]]
[[Category:Archive]]
[[Category:Garuhish]]

Latest revision as of 22:33, 26 January 2021

Page Module:Message box/ambox.css has no content.


Standard Garuhish
Gueruxilfol
Pronunciation[gəɾu'xilfol]
Language family
Trans-Püzimm
  • Saru-Asuran
    • Garuhish
      • Standard Garuhish
Early forms:
Proto-Garuhish
  • Middle Garuhish
    • Standard Garuhish
Dialects
Writing system(WIP)
Official status
Official language inGarohe
CWS codeMGQ

Modern Standard Garuhish (Modern Standard Garuhish: Gueruxilfol, IPA: [gəɾu'xilfol]) is a Saru-Asuran language spoken in the island nation of Garohe, spoken predominantly on the main island Akuvi, and as a second language in the island of Onakia, where the Jutean-Garuhish Creole is preferred.


The standard variety of the language, also known as "City Garuhish", is spoken primarily in the big cities and settlements in Garohe, especially in it's capital city of Tseumuz {subject to change}; as well as by most foreigners who decide to learn the language.


Standard Garuhish is mainly used in extremely formal situations. The government uses the standard when making public announcements and diplomatic visits and meeting with other countries; however, each individual province is free to use its main dialect when making announcements to its native populace. A great deal of publicity and ad campaigns are also made using the standard, to reach a wider audience.


The standard is also used when writing scientific papers, news articles (in the case of the main cities and/or nation-wide news networks) and official documents.


The aforementioned dialects are Western Garuhish, Central Garuhish and Eastern Garuhish.

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Labio-Velar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s s̺ z ʃ ʒ ç ʝ χ h
Affricate t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Lateral l
Approximant ɹ w ɰ ɰ̥
Trill ʀ


Blends gb kp ct ɟd

Vowels

Front Near-Front Central Back
Close i i: y ɯ ɯ: u u:
Near-Close ɪ
Close-Mid e e: o o:
Mid ə
Near-open æ
Open a a: ɑ

Standard Garuhish stress is always placed on the penultimate syllable of the word, and the stress always falls on the root morpheme of the word, regardless of any affixes present..

Phonotactics

{None as of now}

Orthography

The following is a table containing the IPA values for Modern Standard Garuhish and its corresponding letter in the script {when finished}, as well as the romanization.

/m/ /n/ /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ /f/ /v/ /s/ /s̻/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /ç/ /ʝ/ /χ/ /h/ /t͡ʃ/ /d͡ʒ/ /l/ /ɹ/ /w/ /ɰ/ /ɰ̥/ /ʀ/ /gb/ /kp/ /ct/ /ɟd/ /pç/ /bʝ/ /i/ /i:/ /y/ /ɯ/ /ɯ:/ /u/ /u:/ /ɪ/ /e/ /e:/ /o/ /o:/ /ə/ /æ/ /a/ /a:/ /ɑ/
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
m n p b t d k g f v s ş z ś ź c j x h l r w gg kk ř bb pp tt dd i ï ú y ÿ u ü í e ë o ö é á a ä ó

{Script is WIP}

Anything beyond this point is outdated, and is most likely going to completely change

Grammar

Morphology

Derivation in Modern Garuhish (in it's current state) is a cacophony and a clusterfuck of nonsense created by the fact that at the time of its conception, I had no idea about how to derive stuff. It will be fixed in the (hopefully) near future.

Cases

Modern Standard Garuhish has 18 grammatical cases, in singular and plural forms:

  • Nominative
  • Accusative
  • Genitive
  • Possessed (used in conjunction with the Genitive case)
  • Inessive
  • Ectessive
  • Intrative
  • Circumlative
  • Subessive
  • Superessive
  • Ablative
  • Andative
  • Antessive
  • Postessive
  • Sociative
  • Abessive
  • Instrumental
  • Qualitative (used as a way to express color)

For all of the above, if a noun is uncountable, the plural forms do not apply.

Adjectives

Adjectives follow the noun they are modifying To form adjectives, the following rules are applied:

  • If the last vowel in the noun is o, suffix the noun with a, and vice-versa.
  • If the last vowel in the noun is u, suffix the noun with e, and vice-versa.
  • If the last vowel in the noun is y, suffix the noun with i, and vice-versa.

Verbs

To form verbs, the following rules are applied:

  • Suffix the noun with br when it ends with b, or m.
  • Suffix the noun with dr when it ends with d, dh, or n.
  • Suffix the noun with fr when it ends with f, or c.
  • Suffix the noun with gr when it ends with g, or z.
  • Suffix the noun with kr when it ends with k, or l.
  • Suffix the noun with pr when it ends with p, or s.
  • Suffix the noun with vr when it ends with v, or j.
  • Suffix the noun with tr when it ends with t, th, or r.
  • Suffix the noun with qr when it ends with q, or h, if before o, u, or y.
  • Suffix the noun with xr when it ends with x, or h, if before a, e, or i.

Verbs are conjugated by the following:

  • Singular Number
  • Plural Number
  • First Person
  • Second Person
  • Third Person
  • Past Tense
  • Present Tense
  • Future Tense
  • Imperative Mood
  • Subjunctive Mood (future subjunctive is used as a conditional mood)
  • Indicative Mood

Particles

There are several particles in Modern Garuhish, used to modify nouns, pronouns and verbs, they are: {{plainlist|

  • Eminentive: -sie
  • Adverbializer: -fat
  • Agentive (non-human): -then
  • Agentive (human): '-zif
  • Able Tense: ru-
  • Able Tense (negative): glo-
  • Continuous Aspect: pi-
  • Passive Voice: ma-
  • Interrogative: go-
  • Negative: ku-
  • Positive: ni-
  • Reflexive: -oed
  • Singular Definite Article: ug-
  • Plural Definite Article: ak-

The articles "ug-" and "ak-"

These articles have some pretty interesting mutation patterns when prefixed onto a noun; these patterns are shown in the following table:

ug- ak-
gb > mb kb > mp
gc > dj kc > tc
gd > nd kd > nt
gdh > d kdh > t
gf > mv kf > mf
gg > k kg > nk
gh > g kh > k
gj > dj kj > tc
gk > ng kk > k
gl > gl kl > kl
gm > gm km > km
gn > gn kn > kn
gp > mb kp > mp
gq > x kq > x
gr > gr kr > kr
gs > dz ks > ts
gt > nd kt > nt
gth > d kth > t
gv > mv kf > mf
gx > q kx > q
gz > dz kz > ts

Syntax

Word order in Modern Garuhish is free, mostly due to the vast number of grammatical cases; however, traditionally, the word order is VSO.