|Federal Republic of Notzel
Daxloni Notzel (Daxloni Notzel)
|Capital||Degveneth (executive), Deglis (legislative)|
|Recognised national languages||Egeriac|
|Recognised regional languages||Rivkh, Hekosian, Ozomian, Norjihani|
|Ethnic groups||Egeriac, Rivkh, Hekosian, Ozomian, Norjihani|
281,609 sq mi
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
Notzel, officially the Federal Republic of Notzel (Egeriac: Daxloni Notzel [dɑʃ'loni 'not͡sɛl]) is a country located in South Baredina. The capital city for the government is Degveneth, and the capital city for the legislative branch is Deglis.
The origin of the name Notzel is obscure, but it is thought to be derived from a prehistoric Alcian language.
Notzel was initially created by local tribes and city-states in Egeria and surrounding areas to counter the expansion attempts made by neighbours from the north during the 5th century. Initially, it was a confederation of city-states, which later developed into a federal republic.
States in the Notzel confederation had always been a republic, and it is believed that the republicanism among the city-state came from the city-state of Veneth and later spread to other city-states in Egeria.
For a long time, Notzel was a confederation consisting of several republics of Egeriac people (and later countries of the Rivkh people on the Rivkh islands), it was only unified into a federation republic in the mid 19th century.
Before the mid-20th century, Notzel had a lot of military conflicts with its neighbour in the north. The last and the most serious conflict that Notzel was involved in was the GEW. Initially Notzel intended to be neutral, but the invasion from the Unity-sided countries forced them to join the Allied side.
Prehistory and Early History
It is believed that Alcian peoples arose in souhwestern Baredina, and Egeriac people are a part of Alcian peoples. The first Egeriac city-states in the area of modern Notzel arose from around 1,500 BCE. Early written records show that the city-states of Veneth and Zezka had been republics before the before the first-ever writing records, and the city-state of Xovin had become a republic before the common era, after Afol Men Xer, the last king of Xovin, was overthrown in around 600 BCE.
Oral history and early written accounts show that there were several other smaller city-states between Veneth, Zezka and Xovin, and different institutions existed in different city-states, most of them were eventually absorbed by either Veneth, Zezka or Xovin. Most society and political institutions of those city-states are scarcely known due to the lack of written records from those countries.
The Triple Alliance
The Triple Alliance is a tribal alliance of three Egeriac-speaking city-states in Notzelia, namely the Veneth Republic, the Xovin Republic and the Zezka Republic in 175 CE. Initially the formation of the triple alliance was to fight against the mighty Adzamic Empire in the north, and the Qurosist Kingdom of Doloz in the East. Despite the initial conception of the confederation as an alliance of three self-governed city-states, Veneth quickly became dominant militarily and politically, and Egerism, initially the tribal religion of Veneth, soon became the sole dominant religion of the alliance.
As for the political institution, members of Veneth, Xovin and Zezka had full rights to take parts in politics and to elect the leaders of the alliance, members of each city state also had rights to elect their own leaders. People from conquered areas(known as Zvazars) and slaves, on the other hand, had no rights to take parts in politics. Initially most people in the alliance could take parts in politics, but as time passed and more lands were conquered by the alliance, they gradually became the elite class of the confederation, and Zvazar and slaves had already made up the vast majority of the population by the end of the 3rd century.
The adpotion of writing in the area of Notzelia started before the common era; however, the earliest coherent surviving texts about the Egeriac language are from the first century, and by that time the monotheistic belief that would later develop into Egerism had become dominant in the Triple Alliance.
The Tripe Alliance developed into the confederation of Egeria in the 5th century, under the leadership of Veneth Republic. Nominally the confederation was a collection of several countries, mainly the Veneth Republic, the Xovin Republic and the Zezka Republic, but in reality it was functionally a single country in the area.
The main history during the time was the gradual annextion of the areas by the confederation in the south. The kingdom of Spin in the southwest, the kingdom of Tinda in the southeast, the kingdom of Doloz in the east and the Grand Ekuostian Empire in the north were the main opponents of the confederation during the time. Baredan people form the northwest also tried to invade the area during the time.
Another major event was the civil war between the constituent states of the confederation of Egeria, called the War of Dominance in 1370s, in which the Xovin Republic and the Zezka Republic made an alliance to challenge the long-lasting dominance of the Veneth Republic in the confederation, which also led to uprisings from lower classes and eventually led to the decline of the confederation and subsequently foreign invasions from surrounding areas, and almost caused the collapse of the confederation. the confederation was only rebuilt under the leadership of Itznith, the Kmasar girl of Zerrev, in the latter half of 1420s.
Society of the Confederation of Egeria in Middle Ages
While continually being a de jure and de facto republic, the society became stratified and divided into several classes: the Xtazars(or "the elites" or "the people of the alliance"), the Kmasars(or "the middle class"), the Zvazars(or "the commoners") and the slaves, only members of the Xtazars were granted with full rights to take part in politics. Usually, people inherited their status from their mother, a person belonged to the same class as their mothers, but everyone that is not a Xtazar could become a Kmasar with their own merits.
Members of Xtazars descended from peoples of the initial constituent states of the Triple Alliance, namely the Veneth Republic, the Xovin Republic and the Zezka Republic, and among the Xtazars, those who descended from people of the Veneth Republic enjoyed the highest state, and most leaders of the confederation of Egeria were from descendants of the people of the Veneth Republic. Xtazars had a full right to take parts in every political process, they were the only class of people that could take parts in state-level and confederation-level decision-making processes, and were also the only class of people that could take parts in election of state leaders, confederational leaders and parliament members. Virtually all Xtazars inherited their status from their their mothers, and members of Xtazars usually didn't marry members of other classes. Theoretically, anyone could be granted with a Xtazar status by the parliament, but in practice this rarely happened. An estimation shows that Xtazars made up around 5% of the population most of the time.
Members of all other classes were from people of the conquested territories, among them, Zvazars made up the majority of the population, they were farmers, artisans, merchants and such, Zvazars were the main taxpayers and the source of the labour force. While they had no political rights, the Zvazars were free people, they had rights to have their own properties, but they had obligations to pay taxes, and, occasionally, fight for the Xtazars. An estimation shows that Kmasars made up around 60% of the population most of the time.
Kmasars were mostly low level officials, they had limited political rights but could not take part in decision-making process or became state leaders, confederational leaders and parliament members. The Kmasar identity could be won by everyone that does not belong to the Xtazar class with merits, or could be passed down to the children by the fathers. An estimation shows that Kmasars made up around 10% of the population most of the time.
Slaves were the lowest class in the society of the confederation of Egeria, most slaves descended from survivors of conquested people who tried to resist the expansion of the confederation militarily, they had no rights and were owned by people of other classes, and slaveowners had rights to kill any slaves at their will or sell their slaves freely. An estimation shows that slaves made up around 15% of the population most of the time. Theoretically, slaves could also promote themselves to Kmasars with their own merits, but this rarely happened.
Besides the classes introduced above, there were also a class of outcasts, outcasts were not recognized as the members of the society of the confederation of Egeria. Most outcasts were criminals, beggars, "foreigner"s and their descendants. While the outcasts were not owned by anyone, they were also isolated from all social processes, and it was not uncommon for some people to capture members of outcasts and sell them as slaves. An estimation shows that outcasts made up around 10% of the population most of the time. Theoretically, outcasts could also promote themselves to the Kmasar class and thus formally join the society with their own merits, but this rarely happened.
Early Modern Era
The confederation of Egeria fell into a civil war and was almost completely conquered by surrounding countries in 1390s, and most of the lost lands of the confederation were only recovered under the leadership of Itznith, the Kmasar girl of Zerrev, in the latter half of 1420s; also, not long after the recovery of the lost lands, slavery was abolished, all former slaves gained the Zvazar status by the end of the 1480s; besides, all outcasts also gained the Zvazar status by the same time.
The confederation of Egeria was an early bird of firearm use, in the late 15th century, the confederation used firearms as part of its regular infantry. The modern territory of the Federal Republic of Notzel was basically formed during the early modern era. The main history events during early modern era times include the joining of the Rivkh Kingdom as the fourth constituent state of the confederation, the conquest of the kingdom of Spin and the kingdom of Tinda and the subsequent expellment of the population in the former territory of Spin and Tinda, and the expansion of the Xtazar class.
As the confederation of Egeria continued to be a de jure and de facto republic, more and more political disagreements between different political parties emerged, which eventually made the political process less efficient, and at the end, the expansion of Notzel halted not long after the conquest of Spin and Tinda.
Industrial Era and the Formation of the Federation
The old confederational system was proven to be inefficient in dealing with new challenges from the outside world; besides, the new middle class who arose from the industrialisation of the country became more and more weary to the old elites and they wanted to take parts in politics too, consequently, a need for the reformation of the political system became more and more apparent.
The confederation of Egeria was transformed into the Federal Republic of Notzel after the adoption of the federal constitution, but the formation of the federal state was not without twists and turns. the federal constitution was proposed in the early 19th century, but new federal constitution was only adopted in late 1840s after several internal strifes and the series of civil wars in the 19th century, the adoption of the new constitution marked the formation of a new country and a new era, and Notzel became the name of the new country.
The new federal constitution formally abolished the old social class system and granted equal rights to every adult with the citizenship of Notzel, the rights to fully take parts in politics are granted to every adult with the citizenship of Notzel; however, some many areas of the society, including politics, are still dominated by people from the former Xtazar class.
Most areas in Notzel are not geologically active, earthquakes are not common; however, some areas, especially the coastal area and the north, are more geologically active and are more prone to earthquakes.
The coastal area and the northern areas have a Mediterranean climate; while the south has a humid temperate climate.
Notzel is an origin of a variety of economically important plants like onions, garlic, spinach, pistachios, peas, lettuce and hemp.
Notzel has always been a republic since its formation, it is a directorial republic, it has no single president but a college of several people who jointly exercise the powers of a head of state and head of government. The National Committee of Notzel, which consists of 9 members and has existed since the midle ages, serves as the collective head of state and government of Notzel. The term of the National Committee is 5 years. Notzel has a long tradition of having a collective head of state, the first constitution was written in the 19th century, but collective leadership had existed in many predecessors of Notzel for centuries before the first constitution of Notzel was made in the mid 19th century.
Notzel has a bicameral parliament with 388 members in the House of Commons. The term for a legislator is 5 years.
The Supreme Court of Notzel has 11 justices, each justice has lifetime tenure, meaning they remain on the Court until they resign, retire, die, or are removed from office.
Notzel has two capital cities, the seat of the National Committee and the legislature body are in different cities, and sometimes people think Notzel has two capital cities. The seat of the National Committee is in Degveneth and the seat of the legislative body is in Deglis.
Notzel is divided into six states: the State of Veneth, the State of Spin, the State of Xovin, the State of Rivkh, the State of Zezka and the State of Dolzod; Besides, the capital city Degveneth belongs to the Notzel Capital Territory and does not belong to any state.
Norjihan is the largest trade partner of Tzulhon. Other major import partners of Notzel include Algazi Union, Hajea, Letzia, Sroyos, Hemesh, Tabiqa, Nevira, Barradiwa, Zhinayak, Veridia, Fals Empire, Bavkirak, Yaxarhayut, Lhavres and Cerman.
The list of export partners of Notzel is similar, major export partners of Tzulhon include Norjihan, Algazi Union, Hajea, Letzia, Sroyos, Hemesh, Tabiqa, Nevira, Barradiwa, Zhinayak, Veridia, Fals Empire, Bavkirak, Yaxarhayut, Lhavres and Cerman.
The payment currency for international trade in Notzel are Ekuo and Lhavrinian geštug.
Notzel is a continental country, and is not far from major land powers in Ekuosia, and it has always had challenges from neighbouring areas on the land, which means it will put its main focus on the land to defend any possible invasions from the land, as a result, Notzel has a relatively large army compared to its navy and is more a land power than a sea power; however, the navy of Notzel still maintains some capabilities to perform regional offshore coastal defence.
For all stable societies, it is necessary and fundamental to guarantee the safety of all its members in the sense that virtually all members of the society, regardless of age, sex, gender, social status, etc. will live until the day they die naturally of inevitable causes of death, there's one of the few exceptionless rules in the human world and no societies that ever existed could break this rule, societies that have human sacrifice would be either highly unstable, or such practices would affect only a small minority of people or non-members. All laws or social rules that conflict with the need of this will inevitably be nullified within one or two generations, by either being outwardly abolished or by being highly distorted or ignored to the degree that such rules are practically ineffective, therefore, human rights are one of the central issues of all societies and countries in the world.
Discrimination against anyone based on age, caste, criminal record, height, weight, physical appearance, disability, family status, gender identity, gender expression, generation, genetic characteristics, marital status, nationality, profession, color, race and ethnicity, species, religion, sex and sex characteristics, sexual orientation, political ideology, social class, personality, as well as other categories are illegal in the law.
Slavery for humans and nonhumans was abolished in the 15th century. The use of slavery or similar institutions is punishable by imprisonment up to 3 years.
The use of compulsory ID cards or similar documents for identity is unconstitutional, there are no national ID cards in Notzel, and all documents that caj legally prove the identity are only issued to adults with their consent. When a formal identity document is needed, a passport or a driving licence is most often used. For those who do not have—or wish to carry—a passport or driving licence, and only people who have passed a driving test would be able to have a driving licence.
Freedom of speech is guaranteed, the only exception to freedom of speech in Notzel is when a speech would create a clear and present danger, or when an obscene content is shown to the public. There are no laws regulating hate speech and the Supreme Court has repeatedly ruled that laws criminalizing hate speech violate the guarantee to freedom of speech.
The death penalty and life imprisonment have been abolished, the maximal length of imprisonment is 25 years, and 30 years in extraordinary circumstances or during wartime. The death penalty for murder was abolished before the 20th century, and the last use of the death penalty was in 1950 for treason and war crimes.
The use of corporal punishment is not sanctioned as a way of punishment in the law, also the use of corporal punishments at school and at home are also banned. The maximum length of imprisonment is 25 years, and 30 years in exceptional circumstances. The rule also applies to mental health treatment of criminal offenders.
The legal system of Notzel is a mixture of civil law and common law, while there is a civil code, case law and customary law play an important role in the legal system of Notzel.
Firearm ownership is strictly regulated, with citizens being forbidden from owning private firearms.
All forms of sex outside of marriage are illegal, which include sexual assault, rape, adultery, consensual sex before marriage, etc.; besides, the law only regards the marriage between a male and a female. The minimum age for marriage is 18 years. Same-sex marriage is not recognized by the law and polygamy is illegal. Rape within marriage is a criminal offense.
Public transport, such as trains, trams, metro systems, and buses are the major mean of transport in Notzel. Most of the roads and railway lines in Notzel were built in the late 19th century and early 20th century, and nowadays Notzel has a rather high density of railroads. The track gauge used in most areas in Notzel is 1,600 mm, but in some areas the track gauge of 1,400 mm is used.
Besides public transport, automobiles are also important, virtually every family in Notzel has at least one private car. In Notzel, people drive on the right side of the road, subsequently, the steering wheel is typically on the left side of the car in Notzel.
Biofuel is the primary energy source in Notzel, hydroelectric, biofuel plants, solar plants, waste-to-energy plants and oil-fired plants are also important power sources in Notzel.
The use of biofuel in Notzel is pervasive, it is not only the most important energy source but also the main source of fuels for motor vehicles. Most motor vehicles in Notzel run either on hydrous ethanol or on gasohol, as the mixture of 25% anhydrous ethanol with gasoline is mandatory in the entire country, and the ethanol fuel used for motor vehicles in Notzel is mostly produced from plants not used for food.
Besides ethanol, certain types of plant oil are also important sources of fuels for motor vehicles, diesels made of plant oil are commonly used for diesel engines in Notzel.
Due to the shortage of available energy sources in Notzel during GEW and in 1950s, the government of Notzel launched a programme to develop plant-origin ethanol as an alternative source of fuel for motor vehicles, after decades of efforts by scientists in Notzel, nowadays biofuel has become a main energy source in Notzel.
Rumour has it that the Notzel government banned the use of alcohol drinks to save alcohol for motor vehicles; however, this is an urban legend, as the ban on alcohol drinks in Notzel had existed for centuries before the invention of motor vehicles.
Science and technology
Due to its geographical proximity to the Neviran Empire, Notzel was one of the first countries in Sahar that used firearms, firearms were introduced from the Neviran Empire during the 16th century, and Notzel was a centre for firearm production for a century.
In modern times, the use of biofuel and other renewable energies has become a major focus of Notzel science and technology, this is due to the fact that in Sahar, peak uranium has become apparent in recent years, and the emergence of peak uranium is due to the fact that many countries in Sahar use nuclear power as the main power source, which inevitably accelerates greatly the depletion of uranium in Sahar.
The population of Notzel is growing, the fertility rate was around 2.7 births per woman in 2015.
Notzel is a multiethnic country with a diversity of ethnic groups. The largest ethnic group in Notzel is the Egeriac people, making up around 85% of the population; besides, the Rivkh people, the Hekosian people, the Ozomian people and the Norjihani people are significant minority groups.
Due to its location, virtually everyone in Notzel is a human being, non-human sapients are rare in Notzel, and as a result not many non-humans are willing to move to Notzel.
Notzel is highly urbanized. in 2000, more than 85% of the population live in urban areas.
The Egeriac language is the most widely spoken language, it is the mother tongue of around 85% of all population in Notzel, and is also the de facto official language of Notzel; besides, there are a sizable population that speak the Rivkh language, the Spin language, the Ozomian language and the Norjihani language.
Notzel has a high literacy rate, the literacy rate is around 99%-100%. Education in Notzel compulsory at the elementary and lower secondary levels; however, most students continue to high school and college, with more than 90% of the population having at least a high school diploma. Around 25% of high school graduates go to college each year. The mean years of schooling are around 14 years.
Schools generally do not use uniforms, though there are some dress codes for students to ensure the modesty of students. Kindergartens are not compulsory, however, in recent years, an increasing number of children go to kindergarten before elementary school.
For tertiary education, most colleges and universities are public.
On average, there are around 9 hospital beds and 2.8 physicians for every 1000 people. The majority of hospitals are public, but there are also private hospitals, and private clinics are very popular in Notzel.
There are virtually no bachelor-level medical education programmes - medical education programmes are postgraduate, and people must obtain a bachelor degree before studying to be a medical doctor. The only bachelor-level medical educations are those related to nursing.
Due to the advent of corn syrup and the spread of fast-food chains around the country, the obesity rate has grown considerably since the end of GEW. The growth rate of obesity has become a major health concern in Notzel. As of 2019, about 60% of the population are either overweight (BMI > 24) or obese (BMI > 30), and about 23% of the population are obese. The obesity rate in females is slightly higher than that in males. Surveys found that about 61% of males and 59% of females over the age of 15 are either overweight or obese; besides, about 22% of males and 24% of females over the age of 15 are obese.
Notzel is religiously diverse, the constitution law prohibits discriminations based on religion, and there is no national religion in Notzel.
Monasticism is not practised in Notzel in any forms, this is partially due to the Pashaist practice of not creating a complicated system of organised clergy. All people in Notzel, including religious figures like priests, have a family life. Because of the emphasis on family and social life by local people, the branch of Pashaism is sometimes seen as heretic by Pashaists from foreign countries.
There’s a debate of whether atheism and agnosticism should be tolerated. While there are no laws mentioning atheism and agnosticism, and the constitution law guarantees the freedom of religion, some local religious groups maintain that freedom of religion does not mean freedom from religion, and activities of atheism and agnosticism should be restricted. The proposals to restrict activities of atheism and agnosticism are never taken into consideration seriously by the government.
Notzel is largely conservative cultural wise, at least when it comes to sex and recreational drug use. All kinds of recreational drugs are illegal in Notzel, and Notzel also bans the use of alcoholic drinks; also sex before marriage is illegal and morally deplorable in Notzel.
The government does not directly support its cultural industry, the cultural industry is highly commercial as a result.
In the north, vernacular Notzel architecture features the use of stones, bricks and rammed earth; however, in the south, due to the relative abundance of woods, most vernacular architecture in the southern states in Notzel are made of wood.
On the other hand, public buildings, like temples and government buildings, are made of stone and bricks regardless of area.
Calendar and Time-keeping
The Republic of Notzel uses the Egeriac Calendar, which is a lunisolar calendar.
As for time-keeping within a day, Notzel uses the Egeriac clock alongside Sahar Metric Time. In Notzel, the Sahar Metric Time is mostly used in contexts of international affairs like international business and airports.
Notzel visual arts feature naturalism, before the invention of cameras, the depiction of ordinary, everyday subjects was common in Notzel arts.
There is no official national anthem for Notzel.
The modern music industry in Notzel has always been thoroughly commercial.
Notzel has a native film industry, it has one of the oldest film industries in Sahar. Unlike many film industries, Notzel has enjoyed little to no direct government support, through either subsidies or import quotas. It has always been a thoroughly commercial cinema, concentrating on crowd-pleasing genres, like comedy and action, and heavily reliant on formulas, sequels and remakes.
Notzel has a native industry for television programmes, most television shows are aimed at domestic markets. Producers of television programmes in Notzel have enjoyed little to no direct government support, through either subsidies or import quotas and are largely commercial. It is not uncommon for TV Stations to import foreign-made programmes, most foreign-made television programmes in Notzel are from Gfiewistan, Algaz, Nevira, Lhavres, Veridia and (to a lesser extent) Lenezan and Lufasa.
Animation from Gfiewistan, Lhavres and Lenezan has gained popularity in Notzel in recent years. Gfiewish animations have become the most popular foreign-origin animations in Notzel in recent decades.
Cuisines in Notzel are meat-oriented, local people value meat highly, mutton is an important part of the traditional cuisine. Meats of pigs and rodents are traditionally shunned by most peoples in Notzel. Due to the abundance of maize and sorghum, bread made of cornmeal is popular of the area, corn pones (a kind of cornbread that does not contain milk or eggs) are traditionally the staple food in Notzel.
Despite the rising concerns of animal rights globally, vegetarianism is uncommon in Notzel, it is estimated that only less than 3% of all population in Notzel are either vegetarian or vegan; besides, while veganism is not illegal for adults in Notzel, having children under 12 adopting a vegan diet is considered as child abuse.
Leeks, onions and garlic are used extensively in local cuisines; besides, as maize is readily available in Notzel, corn syrup is very common in Notzel and has been regarded as the main sweetener source in Notzel.
In recent years, sandwiches and fish and chips have gained popularity in Notzel.
Football has gained much popularity in recent decades in Notzel and has become the most popular sport in Notzel. Both males and females are ardent fans of football in Notzel. Violence brought by football fans has become a major issue of the public safety.
Besides football, car racing and horse racing are popular among the population, sports betting, especially beting on horse racing, is common and legal in Notzel. Sports betting and Lottery are currently the only legal form of gambling in Notzel and are heavily regulated by the government.
Mice and rats are widely seen as the national animal of Notzel. Both mice and rats are called magan in Egeriac, pictures of both mice and rats are used as mascots, but it is more common for people to use mice as mascots than rats.
Not all countries have national symbols, there are no national symbols stated in anywhere of the law of Notzel, not even the national flag, all national symbols, including the flag, are de facto ones instead of de jure ones, and the color orange is often seen as unofficial national colour.
Notes and References
- Initially, people could inherit their classes from their fathers too, but as more and more people were granted with the Xtazar status because of their Xtazar father, the law was later changed
- though in practice, this rarely happens
- the conquest of the kingdom of Spin had a lot to do with the introduction of firearms, the introduction of firearms to the confederation of Egeria broke the power balance between Egeria, Spin and Tinda, which eventually led to the downfall of Spin and Tinda
- There are societies that have human sacrifice on a large scale, like the Aztec Empire, but the Aztec Empire was highly unstable and was already on the verge of collapse when the Spanish people came.
- National Symbols of Different Countries - Sakshieducation.com