Difference between revisions of "Ozarian language"

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{{Infobox language
 
{{Infobox language
|name          = Modern Standard Osveraali
+
|name          = Ozarian
|altname      = MSO
+
|altname      = OVA
|nativename    = Osverālí
+
|nativename    = Õzāra
|pronunciation = [ɔsvɜʁaɐɪɭi:]
+
|pronunciation = [ə'zɑɾɔ]
|states = Dachashk, Qotsia, Qatilluu, Thargun, Tlha Ngai
+
|states = Ozaria, Republic of Jaege, Kepeshte, Qatilluu
 
|region        = Atsiq
 
|region        = Atsiq
 
|latd  =  | latm  = | latNS  =  <!-- latitude degrees/minutes/direction -->
 
|latd  =  | latm  = | latNS  =  <!-- latitude degrees/minutes/direction -->
 
|longd =  | longm = | longEW =  <!-- longitude degrees/minutes/direction -->
 
|longd =  | longm = | longEW =  <!-- longitude degrees/minutes/direction -->
 
|ethnicity    =  
 
|ethnicity    =  
|speakers      = 20 million
+
|speakers      = 14 million
 
|date          = 2016
 
|date          = 2016
 
|familycolor  =
 
|familycolor  =
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|dialects      =  
 
|dialects      =  
 
|script        = Osveraali script
 
|script        = Osveraali script
|nation        = Dachashk
+
|nation        = Ozaria
 
|agency        =  
 
|agency        =  
 
|iso3          = OVA
 
|iso3          = OVA
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}}
 
}}
  
'''Modern Standard Osveraali''' or '''MSO''' is the official language of [[Dachashk]] and the largest of the modern [[Osveraali languages]] by number of speakers. It is the modern lingua franca of [[Atsiq]].
+
'''Ozarian''' is the official language of [[Ozaria]] and the largest of the modern [[Osveraali languages]] by number of speakers. It is the modern lingua franca of [[Atsiq]].
  
 
==Classification==
 
==Classification==
Modern Standard Osveraali is the standardised form of the vernacular spoken in the [[Dachashk|Kingdom of Dachashk]]. Its ancestors, Middle and Old OSveraali, belong to the Osveraalic branch of Greater Osveraali, making it a close relative of [[Thargian language|Thargian]] and [[Qotsian language|Qotsian]].  
+
Ozarian is the standardised form of the vernacular spoken in [[Ozaria]]. Its ancestors, Middle and Old Osveraali, belong to the Osveraalic branch of Greater Osveraali, making it a close relative of [[Jaegian language|Jaegian]] and [[Kepran language|Kepran]].  
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
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==Phonology==
 
==Phonology==
  
<!-- What sounds does your language use?
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===Phonemes===
Example headings:
+
  
Phonemes
+
Like most modern Atsiq languages, Ozarian distinguishes alveolar from retroflex consonants. The uvulars have merged with the velars or have been lost; /h/ is absent. Length is no longer phonemic in consonants and only partially so in vowels. Schwa has full phoneme status and may appear in stressed syllables. Stress is unpredictable from a synchronic perspective but can be traced to Middle Osveraali stress patterns. As with all Osveraalic languages, Greator Osveraali vowel harmony has been lost entirely.
Allophony
+
Syllable structure
+
Stress
+
 
+
If necessary this can be split into its own article
+
 
+
-->
+
 
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===Phonemes===
+
  
The phoneme inventory of MSO is typical for the Atsiq languages. Consonants generally distinguish voicing in plosives, fricatives and affricates but not length, in contrast to earlier stages. Rhotics are absent, with both liquids being lateral approximants. MSO has three retroflex consonants, considerably less than the neighbouring Shyorian or Thargian. The vowel inventory is large and spread out across five degrees of backness and seven degrees of openness, but the length contrast found in many Osveraali languages has been lost outside of the close peripheral vowels. MSO has two comparatively rare vowels, /ɜ/ and /ɤ/. Vowel harmony has disappeared from the language.
 
 
 
==== Consonants ====
 
==== Consonants ====
  
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! style="width: 68px; " |Palatal
 
! style="width: 68px; " |Palatal
 
! style="width: 68px; " |Velar
 
! style="width: 68px; " |Velar
! style="width: 68px; " |Uvular
 
! style="width: 68px; " |Glottal
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Nasal
 
! style="" |Nasal
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|
 
|
 
|
 
|
|
 
|
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Plosive
 
! style="" |Plosive
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|  
 
|  
 
|t d
 
|t d
|  
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|ʈ ɖ
 
|
 
|
 
|k g
 
|k g
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Fricative
 
! style="" |Fricative
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|ʂ ʐ
 
|ʂ ʐ
 
|
 
|
|
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|x ɣ
|χ ʁ
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|h
+
|-
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! style="" |Affricate
+
|
+
|
+
|
+
|ts dz
+
|
+
|
+
|
+
|
+
|
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Lateral approximant
 
! style="" |Lateral approximant
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|l
 
|l
 
 
|
 
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|  
 
|  
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|  
 
|  
 
|j
 
|j
 +
|-
 +
! style="" |Flap
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 +
|
 
|
 
|
|
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|-  
|  
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|}
 
|}
  
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! style="width: 90px; "|
 
! style="width: 90px; "|
 
! style="width: 90px; " |Front
 
! style="width: 90px; " |Front
! style="width: 90px; " |Near-front
 
 
! style="width: 90px; " |Central
 
! style="width: 90px; " |Central
! style="width: 90px; " |Near-back
 
 
! style="width: 90px; " |Back
 
! style="width: 90px; " |Back
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Close
 
! style="" |Close
| i: y:
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| i
 
|  
 
|  
| ɨ
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| u
|
+
| u:
+
 
|-
 
|-
! style="" |Near-close
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! style="" |Close-mid
 +
| e:
 
|  
 
|  
| ɪ ʏ  
+
| o:
|
+
| ʊ
+
|
+
 
|-
 
|-
! style="" |Close-mid
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! style="" |Mid
| e ø
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|
|  
+
| ə
|  
+
 
|
 
|
| ɤ o
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Open-mid
 
! style="" |Open-mid
|  
+
| ɛ
|
+
| ɜ
+
 
|
 
|
 
| ɔ
 
| ɔ
|-
 
! style="" |Near-open
 
| æ
 
|
 
| ɐ
 
|
 
|
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Open
 
! style="" |Open
| a
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
|
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| ɑ
|
+
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
==== Diphthongs ====
 
==== Diphthongs ====
  
MSO has largely lost its long vowels, converting them into a complex system of diphthongs and triphthongs. Uniquely for an Osveraali language, there are both short and long polyphthongs, with length sometimes found on centralised vowels: /aɐɪ/, /æeɪ/, /aɐ/, /æe/, /oɔ/, /oɔ:/, /iɪ:/, /yi:/, /uʊ:/, /aɔʏ/ and //.
+
Ozarian has three diphthongs, /ɑi/, /ɑu/ and /ɔu/.
  
 
===Phonotactics===
 
===Phonotactics===
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==Grammar==
 
==Grammar==
  
Modern Standard Osveraali has lost most of the complex inflectional system of Greater Osveraali, continuing a process that is attested already in Old Osveraali.  
+
Ozarian has lost most of the complex inflectional system of Greater Osveraali, continuing a process that is attested already in Old Osveraali.  
  
 
===Nouns===
 
===Nouns===
  
Like all Osveraali languages with the exception of Shyorian, there is no inflection for gender. MSO nouns inflect in three cases (common, genitive and oblique), but a number distinction appears only in the common case, which covers both nominative and accusative. The possessive inflection has been lost entirely and replaced with possessive pronouns. Many common nouns are irregular in their common plural formation.
+
Like all Osveraali languages with the exception of Shyorian, there is no inflection for gender. Nuns mark number (singular and plural) and two cases (common, and oblique). The common case is used for both subjects and objects, which are distinguished by verb agreement. The oblique case, sometimes also called postpositional, reflects the Middle Osveraali genitive case and is used only with postpositions, which have replaced the system of locational cases of Imperial and Middle Osveraali. For nominal possession, Ozarian employs a possessive declension on the possessed noun while the possessor remains in the common case. This construct state pattern is typical of the modern Osveraalic languages.
 +
 
 +
There are many irregular nouns, including several suppletive stems.
  
 
===Verbs===
 
===Verbs===
  
The MSO verb's main inflectional category is aspect. It distinguishes three main stems (progressive, perfective and resultative) but does not inflect for tense or agreement with any of its constituents. There are three synthetic moods (indicative, subjunctive, imperative) and two periphrastic ones (potential, negative). MSO is one of the modern Osveraali languages that preserve asymmetric negation; in negative sentences, the aspect distinction is levelled.
+
The Ozarian verb's main inflectional category is aspect. It distinguishes three main stems (progressive, perfective and resultative) but does not inflect for tense. There are three synthetic moods (indicative, subjunctive, imperative) and two periphrastic ones (potential, negative). Ozarian is one of the modern Osveraali languages that preserve asymmetric negation; in negative sentences, the aspect distinction is levelled. Agreement with the subject is by rhyme, as in Imperial Osveraali - the verbal flexive is copied onto the subject.
  
 
There is a sophisticated system of derivational affixes that encode different aspectual shades, as well a several participles that serve to link clauses together in adverbial constructions. A passive can be formed periphrastically; in contrast to Imperial Osveraali, passives are simple main clauses. Reciprocal and reflexive constructions are also expressed via particles.
 
There is a sophisticated system of derivational affixes that encode different aspectual shades, as well a several participles that serve to link clauses together in adverbial constructions. A passive can be formed periphrastically; in contrast to Imperial Osveraali, passives are simple main clauses. Reciprocal and reflexive constructions are also expressed via particles.
  
MSO continues the use of applicatives for relativisation on obliques, comparees, genitives and locations.
+
Ozarian continues the use of applicatives for relativisation on obliques, comparees, genitives and locations.
  
 
===Adjectives===
 
===Adjectives===
  
MSO adjectives do not inflect for number or agreement. A dozen very common adjectives retain synthetic comparative and superlative forms; for most, however, these are expressed analytically. There are no adverbs; if an adjective describes a verb, both are nominalised.
+
Ozarian adjectives do not inflect for number or agreement. A dozen very common adjectives retain synthetic comparative and superlative forms; for most, however, these are expressed analytically. There are no adverbs; if an adjective describes a verb, both are nominalised.
  
 
===Syntax===
 
===Syntax===
  
MSO is a prime example of the characteristic Osveraali tense-based word order. The timeframe of an action is described not by verb inflection but by constituent order, with present, past and future each expressed by a different arrangement. Past-tense sentences begin with the verb, while the future moves the verb to the end. If subject and object are separated by the verb, the sentence is understood to be present tense. In intransitive sentences, the present and future are indistinguishable; this can be avoided by nominalising the verb and reformulating the sentence with an auxiliary ("I sleep" -> "I perform sleep"), resulting in a structure that is transitive.  
+
Ozarian is a prime example of the characteristic Osveraali tense-based word order. The timeframe of an action is described not by verb inflection but by constituent order, with present, past and future each expressed by a different arrangement. Past-tense sentences begin with the verb, while the future moves the verb to the end. If subject and object are separated by the verb, the sentence is understood to be present tense. In intransitive sentences, the present and future are indistinguishable; this can be avoided by nominalising the verb and reformulating the sentence with an auxiliary ("I sleep" -> "I perform sleep"), resulting in a structure that is transitive.  
  
Relative clauses tend to branch left with a retained pronoun and the verb in participle form, but can also be put tpo the right of their head, again requiring an explicit pronoun. While conjunctions are used a lot in the spoken language, written MSO mostly avoids them in favour of synthetic adverbial constructions.
+
Relative clauses are internally headed or adjoined. While conjunctions are used a lot in the spoken language, written Ozarian mostly avoids them in favour of synthetic adverbial constructions.
  
 
==Vocabulary==
 
==Vocabulary==
 +
 +
Ozarian is the Atsiq language with the highest percentage of Imperial Osveraali loans, reflecting its position as the vernacular language of the Imperial capital of Usuva. Another major source of borrowings is Shyorian, either indirectly through Imperial Osveraali or as more recent adoptions. The other languages of Atsiq have also contributed to the Ozarian lexicon.
  
 
==Writing and literature==
 
==Writing and literature==
  
MSO is written in a modified version of the Osveraali script that originated during the 11th century and was first used to write Imperial Osveraali.
+
Ozarian is written in a modified version of the [[Osveraali alphabet]].  
  
 
[[Category:Languages]]
 
[[Category:Languages]]

Latest revision as of 14:33, 16 January 2020

Ozarian
OVA
Õzāra
Pronunciation[ə'zɑɾɔ]
RegionAtsiq
Native speakers14 million  (2016)
Language family
Osveraali
  • Greater Osveraali
    • Osveraalic
      • Osveraali Proper
        • Ozarian
Early forms:
Old Osveraali
  • Middle Osveraali
    • Ozarian
Writing systemOsveraali script
Official status
Official language inOzaria
CWS codeOVA

Ozarian is the official language of Ozaria and the largest of the modern Osveraali languages by number of speakers. It is the modern lingua franca of Atsiq.

Classification

Ozarian is the standardised form of the vernacular spoken in Ozaria. Its ancestors, Middle and Old Osveraali, belong to the Osveraalic branch of Greater Osveraali, making it a close relative of Jaegian and Kepran.

History

Phonology

Phonemes

Like most modern Atsiq languages, Ozarian distinguishes alveolar from retroflex consonants. The uvulars have merged with the velars or have been lost; /h/ is absent. Length is no longer phonemic in consonants and only partially so in vowels. Schwa has full phoneme status and may appear in stressed syllables. Stress is unpredictable from a synchronic perspective but can be traced to Middle Osveraali stress patterns. As with all Osveraalic languages, Greator Osveraali vowel harmony has been lost entirely.

Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ k g
Fricative f v θ s z ʂ ʐ x ɣ
Lateral approximant l ɭ
Approximant j
Flap ɾ

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e: o:
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open ɑ

Diphthongs

Ozarian has three diphthongs, /ɑi/, /ɑu/ and /ɔu/.

Phonotactics

Grammar

Ozarian has lost most of the complex inflectional system of Greater Osveraali, continuing a process that is attested already in Old Osveraali.

Nouns

Like all Osveraali languages with the exception of Shyorian, there is no inflection for gender. Nuns mark number (singular and plural) and two cases (common, and oblique). The common case is used for both subjects and objects, which are distinguished by verb agreement. The oblique case, sometimes also called postpositional, reflects the Middle Osveraali genitive case and is used only with postpositions, which have replaced the system of locational cases of Imperial and Middle Osveraali. For nominal possession, Ozarian employs a possessive declension on the possessed noun while the possessor remains in the common case. This construct state pattern is typical of the modern Osveraalic languages.

There are many irregular nouns, including several suppletive stems.

Verbs

The Ozarian verb's main inflectional category is aspect. It distinguishes three main stems (progressive, perfective and resultative) but does not inflect for tense. There are three synthetic moods (indicative, subjunctive, imperative) and two periphrastic ones (potential, negative). Ozarian is one of the modern Osveraali languages that preserve asymmetric negation; in negative sentences, the aspect distinction is levelled. Agreement with the subject is by rhyme, as in Imperial Osveraali - the verbal flexive is copied onto the subject.

There is a sophisticated system of derivational affixes that encode different aspectual shades, as well a several participles that serve to link clauses together in adverbial constructions. A passive can be formed periphrastically; in contrast to Imperial Osveraali, passives are simple main clauses. Reciprocal and reflexive constructions are also expressed via particles.

Ozarian continues the use of applicatives for relativisation on obliques, comparees, genitives and locations.

Adjectives

Ozarian adjectives do not inflect for number or agreement. A dozen very common adjectives retain synthetic comparative and superlative forms; for most, however, these are expressed analytically. There are no adverbs; if an adjective describes a verb, both are nominalised.

Syntax

Ozarian is a prime example of the characteristic Osveraali tense-based word order. The timeframe of an action is described not by verb inflection but by constituent order, with present, past and future each expressed by a different arrangement. Past-tense sentences begin with the verb, while the future moves the verb to the end. If subject and object are separated by the verb, the sentence is understood to be present tense. In intransitive sentences, the present and future are indistinguishable; this can be avoided by nominalising the verb and reformulating the sentence with an auxiliary ("I sleep" -> "I perform sleep"), resulting in a structure that is transitive.

Relative clauses are internally headed or adjoined. While conjunctions are used a lot in the spoken language, written Ozarian mostly avoids them in favour of synthetic adverbial constructions.

Vocabulary

Ozarian is the Atsiq language with the highest percentage of Imperial Osveraali loans, reflecting its position as the vernacular language of the Imperial capital of Usuva. Another major source of borrowings is Shyorian, either indirectly through Imperial Osveraali or as more recent adoptions. The other languages of Atsiq have also contributed to the Ozarian lexicon.

Writing and literature

Ozarian is written in a modified version of the Osveraali alphabet.