Prefectures of Lugida
|Created by||National Subdivisions Act, 1874|
– 26 proper prefectures
– 1 capital prefecture
– 6 urban prefectures
– 2 special prefectures
|Populations||616,194 (Tenko) – 13,613,021 (Natlia)|
|Subdivisions||Municipality and equivalent|
The Prefectures of Lugida (Lithian: Amirsega), alternatively or in historical contexts the domains of Lugida (Gan), are the 35 first-level administrative divisions of Lugida. These are classified into four; two special prefectures, six urban prefectures, one capital prefecture of Natlia and the remaining 26 proper prefectures. The system was established in 1874 by the then-newly established Lugid government to replace the former Kingdom of Melunair's system of circuits and domains, hence the term 'domain' for prefectures.
Prefectures are divided into municipalities known as cities, towns, and in urban prefectures, wards. Governors are elected in five-year terms. They have the administrative and judicial authority within their prefectures' boundaries while in respect to the central government of Lugida; the national government may prevent a prefecture-level ordinance from entering force especially when it is not compatible higher-level laws such as an Executive Order, acts on the National Code, and the Constitution. However, this doesn't necessarily apply to special prefectures, who can enact prefectural ordinance that override some higher-level laws.
Amirsega is a Lithian word that translates to "prefecture", derived from amir "office" and sega "land"—meaning "office of the domain". Amirsega is also used to refer to other countries' first-level administrative divisions and may also be translated to mean "province" or "subdivision" depending on context.
Prior to the formation of prefectures, the circuit and domain system was used. Starting from 1386 during Forian Kingdom rule, the core territory was subdivided into four circuits, corresponding to territories of the four member kingdoms of the Forian League. These are further divided into domains called gan. The Kingdom of Melunair subdivisions adopt a similar structure. Following their conquest of now-southern Lugida in 1730 the kingdom retained the Forian domain borders and made them part of a single, large circuit. This lasted for nine years before Melunair redrew its borders on its newly incorporated southern portion, parting them into four circuits.
With the formation of the Republic, the administration in 1869 began consolidating smaller domains to form the prefectures of Lugida, abolishing the circuits in the process. Initially there were around 128 prefectures corresponding to the Melunairi domains, and in 1874 the consolidation process ended at 38 prefectures with the National Subdivisions Act. Amirseget has replaced gan as the official term for the subdivision, although the latter is still used informally and in historical contexts. Lugida's six circuits are now used to designate the regions of Lugida.
Initially there were no special designations for prefectures other than the capital Natlia, as acknowledged by the National Subdivisions Act. In the 1920s, Melon Prefecture requested greater autonomy as a Melune majority region. Their request was accepted in 1930 with the Local Autonomy Act, creating and granting them the "special" classification, which would also be granted for Chora Prefecture in 1976. The ordinance also created urban prefectures, first granted for Eldin and Tokhan. These have higher urban populations compared to other prefectures and were the second and third largest by population respectively. In 1979 four more prefectures became an urban prefecture. The National Subdivisions Act has been amended three times—in 1930, 1956, and 2000—most of which concern the prefectures' extent of administration and power.
Prefectures are headed by a governor along with the prefectural council. Councils serve as local lawmakers and oversee the prefectural budget, while governors provide local policies and regulations in respect to existing ordinance. Governors are elected by popular first past the post vote every five years. As Lugida is a unitary state, local jurisdictions often rely on the national government for funding and administration. Governance of prefectures is overseen by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and other ministries who can and often intervene local government policies and funding.
Below the prefecture are municipalities. Depending on type of prefecture and population these municipalities are designated as a town, city, district, ward, or metropolis. They each maintain public services and civil administration.
In prefectures with special designations such as Melon and Eldin, governance works slightly differently. Public services such as police force and fire departments in urban prefectures are overseen directly by the prefectural government, instead of by its individual municipalities. Special prefectures have greater self-authority on local budget and lawmaking as they can enact laws that replace parts of the national ordinance. Melon Prefecture's prefectural council, the Council of Melon, functions as both the local legislature and the governor and its members are elected in four-year terms instead of five.
26 out of 35 prefectures are ordinary, "proper" prefectures (Amirsega tama). Despite its name they do not vest the word tama in their official name. Normal prefectural governance laws apply. The term "proper" is used to distinguish them from other types of prefectures. Proper prefectures are comprised of municipalities that may be either districts, towns or cities, depending on their population.
Urban prefecture (Amirsega ferne) is the classification given for Eldin, Tokhan, Tetra, Kito, Susa and Thercein. Here the prefectural government has more power over within its borders, as some functions normally assigned to municipalities are relegated to the prefectural government. Municipalities of urban prefectures are called wards, although Tetra Prefecture remained to use the term 'district'.
Two prefectures have the designation of special prefectures (Amirsega sivesh), Melon and Chora. They are unique in that they have greater autonomy over its territory and can enact laws that may override higher-level laws, as long as it remains in respect of the Constitution. Their municipalities and government are generally structured differently than other prefectures.
In the case of Melon Prefecture, the governor is substituted by the Council of Melon which functions similarly to a prefectural assembly. Each of its 40 councilors represent the 40 districts of Melon Prefecture, including four who represent Chitra. They are elected by populations of each district to serve four-year terms instead of regular five years. Otherwise in Chora Prefecture, the region is divided into relatively larger-sized districts and has stricter environmental laws, intended to give Lenthir National Park additional protection.
The capital city of Natlia is officially a capital prefecture (Amirsega kiwa). Here the national government has direct control of the prefecture's administration and functions akin to an urban prefecture. Natlia is divided into wards and special wards.
List of prefectures
|Prefecture||Capital||Largest city||Region||Population||Area (km²)||Density (per km²)||Code|