|Federal Republic of Tzulhon
Zulhon Estomokoito/Zulhon Estato
135,282 sq mi
|-||Total||2.973 trillion USD|
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|-||Total||2.797 trillion USD|
Tzulhon was governed by a Kuulist regime during the latter half of the 20th century, but it has become a democratic country since 1985.
The name Tzulhon is from the Harish word Zulhon, which means "cloud land" in the Harish language, the official language of Tzulhon.
The Harish word Zulhon Estomokoito literally means "The Federal Republic of Tzulhon", the word estomokoito is the definite singular form of estomokoiyo, which is in turn from esto "federation" + omokoiyo "republic"; the Harish word Zulhon Estato literally means "The Federation of Tzulhon".
The history of early Tzulhonic-speaking peoples is obscure; however, archaeological evidence suggests a continuous and intensive contacts with Ngerupic peoples in the past, and it is generally thought that metallurgy was introduced by Ngerupic-speaking peoples. Linguistic evidence also supports an intensive prehistoric contacts between Tzulhonic-speaking peoples and Ngerupic-speaking peoples on Tzulhonic islands, especially contacts with Mañi speaking communities.
Several early city-states on Tzulhonic islands were probably founded by Ngerupic-speaking communities on Tzulhonic islands; besides Ngerupic peoples, Canamic peoples from Cananganam also contacted Tzulhonic peoples pretty early on, the first contact between Tzulhonic peoples and Canamic peoples happened between 500 BCE - 200 CE.
Tzulhon was divided into several city states before the 9th century, and there were no unified country in Tzulhon islands before the 16th century. The first historical record in Tzulhon dated to the 5th century, but the earliest records were written in Old Kwang, and the first records written in local languages only appeared in the 6th century.
In the 9th century, a city-state called the Republic of Tzulkeyo defeated the Kingdom of Nipland in north Hareland and unified the whole area of Hareland after Tomastarzokar, the last king of the Kingdom of Nipland, had been caught in the battle of Lake Laivo. The fall of the Kingdom of Nipland signed the start of the intense Qomklification in Tzulhonic islands. The Republic of Hareland was formed soon after the unification of Hareland.
Subsequently, Republic of Hareland unified the Tzulhon main island during the 11th century, and later in the 16th centry, Republic of Hareland unified the Tzulhon islands, creating the fist unified state of Tzulhon islands, and then the government of Republic of Hareland renamed the country to the Federal Republic of Tzulhon, to reflect the fact that the government no longer only governs Hareland but governs the whole area of Tzulhon islands.
Before the 16th century, there were several states in modern-day Tzulhon, and the modern Federal Republic of Tzulhon is a direct successor of the Republic of Hareland, which in turn was a direct successor of the Republic of Tzulkeyo.
Following the expansion of the Republic of Hareland, Harish people also spreaded throughout the islands and has become a major ethnic group of Tzulhon since the 16th century. Later Tzulhon became a regional naval power, this is because of its geographic location, which makes Tzulhon put its main focus on the ocean, as a result, while Tzulhon never managed to expand its territories, its naval power was sufficient to defend itself from foreign invasions, even invasions from major naval powers like Dhwer or Terminia.
In the 19th century, due to the rise of nationalism, a "nativization" movement also started in Tzulhon, which aimed at creating a "Tzulhon" identity; however, the nativization movement also caused a lot of civil unrests and almost led to a civil war in Tzulhon during the 19th and early 20th century because of separatist movements. These civil unrests greatly weakened Tzulhon in the 20th century and might also contributed to the eventual rise of Kuulism in Tzulhon.
Tzulhon was a neutral state during the Great Ekuosian War, but it had a civil war during the 1940s. The Kuulist party defeated the National party (which were originalky balkist, but later turned to Sannist, and the balkist adherents joined the Kuulist party later) in 1950 and reigned Tzulhon until 1985. Many people nowadays have a mixed opinion on the former Kuulist regime - people maintain that while the Kuulist regime had a large record of human right violations and had strict restrictions on economic activities, it also promoted equity among the people of the country and both of the public hygiene and the literacy rate were greatly improved during the Kuulist times.
Tzulhon is an island country consisting of two main islands and several smaller islands. The largest island of Tzulhon is called the main island, or Tzulhon main island, and the second largest island is called the south island.
Tzulhon is on a place where two tectonic plates meet, therefore Tzulhonic islands are geologically active with active volcanoes and earthquakes. Many of the highest mountains in Tzulhon are volcanoes, and Tzulhon boasts for an abundance of geothermal energy.
The southern parts of Tzulhon have a subtropical climate; the west coast area has a temperate oceanic climate, the east coast has a humid continental climate, and parts of the inland area have a semi-arid climate.
The islands have a variety of climate and varied soils, giving rise to a diverse pattern of vegetation. Animal and plant life is similar to that of the Draconic islands and mainland Soltenna. There are however, fewer numbers of species compared to mainland Soltenna.
Many larger animals that once lived on Tzulhonic islands have become extinct in prehistoric times and in early historic times; besides, many species have become nearly extinct in recent decades. In modern days, many species are protected. Other small mammals, such as rabbits, hares, and beavers, are very common in Tzulhon.
Under the 1985 constitution, the government of Tzulhon consists of three branches: the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch. The presidents are the leaders of the executive branch, the legislative part of the government of Tzulhon is the parliament, and the judicial part is the Supreme Court of Tzulhon.
Tzulhon has always been a republic since the unification in the 16th century, it has a diarchy system, that is, it has two heads of state, both of them are called presidents and both presidents are elected by the people, and according to custom, the presidents cannot be from the same family. Both presidents can represent the country and may take turns to visit foreign leaders during their terms. The term limits for both presidents is 6 years, and the presidential election is held every 3 years.
Tzulhon has a unicameral parliament with 390 members. The term for a legislator is 4 years.
The Supreme Court of Tzulhon has 9 justices, each justice has lifetime tenure, meaning they remain on the Court until they resign, retire, die, or are removed from office. The 1985 constitution requires a referendum to change the number of justices or the terms of justices of the Supreme Court.
The current constitution was ratified in 1985. In the 1985 Constitution, all compulsory measures based on eugenics, corporal punishment or the death penalty were abolished. The constitution also abolished life imprisonment, with the maximum length of prison sentences being restricted to 25 years.
Before the mid 20th century, Tzulhon was an elitist republic. Before the 1940s, political rights were restricted to the members of the nobility, which constituted about 1.5% of the population in 1940s. Universal suffrage was granted in 1945 by the Kuulist government alongside with the abolition of the nobility class in the law.
Works related to transformative justice, including the prosecution of government officials and civil servants involving atrocities of the government, is still ongoing.
Civil servants is open for everyone, one needs to pass the civil servant exams to become a civil servant; besides, most civil servant positions require applicants to have at least 5 years of full time job experience, the only governmental positions that don’t have the full time job experience requirements are school teachers(which require a degree in normal schools instead), positions requiring a postgraduate degree, positions designated by elections(i.e. mayors, members of the parliament), and positions in the military, police department and fire department. Active civil servants may attend to the National Institute for Civil Service to be trained as candidates for senior civil servants.
Tzulhon is a federal republic, it is divided into 5 states and a capital district called the Tzulkeyo Capital District.
Lhavres is the largest trade partner of Tzulhon. Almost all crude oil, natural rubber and a great majority of consumer electronics in Tzulhon, like televisions, telephones, computers, video game consoles, etc., and certain types of foodstuff, are imported from Lhavres. The other country whose electronic products have a significant proportion of market share in Tzulhon is Lenezan. Other major import partners of Tzulhon include Qonklaks, Danshapu, Lenezan, Magali, Cerman, Letzia, Veridia, Barradiwa, Liosol, Astalva, Vosan, Dhwer, Yachiro, Chelgyu, Qgam, Ru and Seang Pe.
The list of export partners of Tzulhon is similar, major export partners of Tzulhon include Qonklaks, Danshapu, Lenezan, Magali, Chelgyu, Yachiro, Qgam, Ru, Seang Pe, Cerman, Letzia, Lhavres, Veridia, Barradiwa, Liosol, Astalva, Vosan and Dhwer.
The payment currency for international trade in Tzulhon are Qonklese Chih and Lhavrinian Geštug.
The military of Tzulhon is an all volunteer military, but conscription might be enacted during wartime. In Tzulhon, there are much more human females than males serving in the military and the police department, to the degree that human male soldiers and police officers have become a small minority in the armed forces of Tzulhon.
The armed forces in Tzulhon is divided into four branches: the army, the navy, the air force and the military police. The military police is an independent branch of the armed force, its main function is to be the police within the military, also the military police helps the defense of the capital city area and provides bodyguards for the president and high officials of the government. The military police is trained jointly with the army and the police. The coast guard of Tzulhon is not considered as a part of the military but a part of the police force; however, the coast guards are often trained jointly with the navy.
Tzulhon has a relatively large navy compared to its army, this is due to its geographic location. Tzulhon is an island nation, therefore all of its threats would be from the ocean, which makes the government of Tzulhon put its main focus on the ocean, and that leads to a relatively large navy size. The naval force of Tzulhon is mostly defensive, and lacks the ability of power projection in other countries; however, the navy of Tzulhon has a limited ability of regional offshore coastal defence, which classifies the navy of Tzulhon as a green-water navy.
Tzulhon enjoys a relatively overall low crime rate; however, the incarceration rate is high, as the justice system prefers incarceration and harsh punishment as the main measure to fight against crime. The use of incarceration and harsh punishment to reduce crime is widely supported by the public but has been harshly criticized by many criminologists.
Human and Animal Rights
For all stable societies, it is necessary and fundamental to guarantee the safety of all its members in the sense that virtually all members of the society, regardless of age, sex, gender, social status, etc. will live until the day they die naturally of inevitable causes of death, there's one of the few exceptionless rules in the human world and no societies that ever existed could break this rule, societies that have human sacrifice would be either highly unstable, or such practices would affect only a small minority of people or non-members. All laws or social rules that conflict with the need of this will inevitably be nullified within one or two generations, by either being outwardly abolished or by being highly distorted or ignored to the degree that such rules are practically ineffective, therefore, human rights are one of the central issues of all societies and countries in the world.
Humans and astalvis generally get along quite well in Tzulhon, the treatment of different species are regarded as fair. The discrimination against anyone based on sex and sex characteristics, gender identity, gender expression, generation, age, caste, criminal record, height, weight, physical appearance, disability, family status, genetic characteristics, marital status, nationality, profession, color, race and ethnicity, species, religion, sexual orientation, political ideology, social class, personality, as well as other categories are illegal in the law.
Animal rights has become a centre of concern in Tzulhon recent years, vegetarianism and veganism is becoming increasingly popular among the human population in Tzulhon, it is estimated that about 15-20% of all population in Tzulhon are vegetarian and have been on a vegetarian diet for at least 3 months.
Interpersonal conflicts exist in all societies, conflicts are often destructive and can destabilize the society, therefore resolving conflicts is necessary for the stability of the society, and the fundamental function of the law is to resolve conflicts and to give rules regulating behaviour and regulating the use of resources.
The use of the death penalty, corporal punishments or life imprisonments are unconstitutional since 1985.
The possession of private firearms was outlawed during the Kuulist time, and nowadays firearm ownership continues to be strictly regulated, with citizens being forbidden from owning private firearms.
All societies have marriage in the sense of culturally recognised union between people, and all countries have laws regulating marriage.
The marriage law of Tzulhon does not recognize any forms of extramarital sex, all forms of extramarital sex, including sex before marriage, are criminal offenses and are punishable by imprisonment.
The minimum age for marriage is 25 years old, but 17 with the consent of parents of both sides.
Manufacturing, trafficking, distribution, importation and exportation of drugs are forbidden, and are punishable by imprisonment. The minimal penalty for manufacturing, trafficking, distribution, importation and exportation of drugs is 5 years.
The possession and use of drugs, however, is not a criminal offense, but the possession must be licensed, and the use must be under strict supervision, and for people who have drug addiction or are terminally ill, it is legal to possess and use drugs with an appropriate medical certificate. Possessing and using drugs without a license or a medical certificate is punishable by fines or community service.
- main article: Economy of Tzulhon
Since the end of the Kuulist regime, Tzulhon has seen rapid economic growth, with an average annual gdp growth rate around 7% before 2010s.
Most people in Tzulhon nowadays work in secondary and tertiary industrial sectors, about 10% of the population work in the primary industrial sectors and in the mining industry.
Agriculture in the country is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. It was the most significant sector of the economy of Tzulhon, but the importance of agriculture has greatly decreased. Agriculture employs about 10% of the population, and about 25% of the land is used for agricultural purposes.
Archaeological evidence suggests that ancient Tzulhonic peoples performed slash and burn agriculture, the use of slash and burn was replaced by more advanced methods introduced by Manic peoples, Kwang peoples and other peoples during historical periods; however, slash and burn agriculture was still performed in remote areas in Tzulhon until mid 20th century.
The secondary sector of Tzulhon has undergone many changes and diversification, from electronics, manufacturing, textiles, to food, cement, mining and energy. since the collapse of the communist regime in the country. It has become very diversified; however, metalworking and manufacturing, especially the production of drugs and motor vehicles, are the most important part of the secondary sector of Tzulhon.
The secondary sector employs about 20% of the population.
The tertiary sector represents the fastest growing sector of the country's economy, it employs around 70% of the population and contributes to more than 75% of of the country's GDP.
Public transport, such as trains, trams, metro systems, and buses are still the major mean of transport in Tzulhon. Most of the roads and railway lines in Tzulhon were built during the dualist regime, and nowadays Tzulhon has a high density of railroads, to the degree that one can travel to virtually every district of every city and town by train.
In Tzulhon, people drive on the right side of the road, subsequently, the steering wheel is typically on the left side of the car in Tzulhon.
The highways and motorways in Tzulhon are properly maintained and often still under construction and renovation. The Cycling Route 1 represents an integral transportation corridor in Tzulhon. It starts and ends at Tzulkeyo and links major cities on the main island like the city of Polko and the city of Ozil.
Imasezo is the busiest and largest seaport in the country, followed by Ozil, Xoranka and Polko. The principal ports serve a system of ferries connecting the major islands of Tzulhon and coastal cities in Awarahl, Yachiro, Seang Pe, Qonklaks and Akamyokulta.
The rail network is administered by the national railway company Zulhon i Koixo Xomi(National Railways of Tzulhon) which was extensively promoted during the Kuulist era. There has been a considerable increase in private car ownership and bus usage while rail use decreased since the end of kuulism.
Tzulhon satisfies its energy needs by exploiting a variety of sources, with none of the sources being dominant. The most common energy sources in Tzulhon are nuclear, geothermal, hydroelectric and biofuel. Solar plants, Waste-to-energy plants and oil-fired plants are also important power sources in Tzulhon. The varied use of energy source was a part of the energy diversification project during the Kuulist regime, the aim of the project was to guarantee a stable supply of power to the people, as a great proportion of power demand in Tzulhon comes from imported sources, therefore diversified sources of power would make its power supply less vulnerable to the international prices of energy sources like crude oil, coal, uranium, etc.
Tzulhon boasts its wide use of geothermal energy, around 25% of all its power needs are met by its geothermal plants.
Due to the possible shortage of uranium and oil in the near future, the importance of biofuel is rising in recent years, nowadays biofuel plants provide around 25% of all power needed in Tzulhon.
Nuclear energy is also important in Tzulhon, nuclear plants provide around 20% of all power needed in Tzulhon. Most nuclear plants were built during Kuulist times.
Another important energy in Tzulhon is hydroelectric, hydroelectric power stations provide around 15% of all power needed in Tzulhon. Most nuclear plants were built during Kuulist times.
Science and technology
There are around 1,000,000 visitors from other countries each year, most of them are business travellers and foreign students. Domestic tourism is the main form of tourism, and most local services and facilities are aimed for the needs of business travel or domestic tourism. There are few facilities and services available for international tourism.
The unit of currency in Tzulhon is Hankamo.
Tzulhon has a rather young population with a median age of around 27 years old, with a fertility rate of around 3 births per woman in 2015.
Tzulhon is a multiethnic country with a large diversity of ethnic groups. The Harish people is the largest ethnic group in Tzulhon, and the Harish language is the de facto official language of Tzulhon.
The look of many ethnic groups in Tzulhon vary, there is no definite "Tzulhon look"; however, peoples from continental Soltenna, like the Wanabi people, look more similar to continental Soltennan peoples.
Besides human beings of different ethnic groups, Astalvis also make up a significant proportion of the population, more than 10% of the total population in Tzulhon are Astalvis, and Tzulhon has one of the largest population of Astalvis outside of Astalva. There's a theory that Tzulhon was initially an Astalvi land, but they were gradually replaced by human beings in many locations; besides, Dalars also have a also make up a significant proportion of the population, around 4% of the total population in Tzulhon are Dalars.
Tzulhon has undergone a rapid urbanization in the latter half of the 20th century. In 1950, more than 90% of the population lived in rural areas; in 2000, more than 90% of the population live in urban areas.
There are no de jure official languages on the national level; however, the Harish language is the de facto official language, and it is also the most widespred language in Tzulhon. Around 55% of the population speak Harish as the mother tongue, and more than 90% of the population has at least some working knowledge of Harish.
Tzulhon has a high literacy rate, the literacy rate is around 99%-100%. Education in Tzulhon is compulsory at the elementary and lower secondary levels; however, most students continue to high school and college, with more than 95% of the population having at least a high school diploma. As a relic of past Kuulist regime, most schools in Tzulhon are public and free, with only a few private schools around the country. Around half of the high school graduates go onto college each year. The mean years of schooling is around 14 years.
Most schools do not use uniforms, though there are some dress codes for students to ensure the modesty of students.
Kindergartens are free but not compulsory, most children, however, go to kindergarten before elementary school.
For tertiary education, all colleges and universities are public; also, all law schools, medical schools, business schools and normal schools(schools for training future elementary school and high school teachers) are postgraduate. Graduate schools, law schools, medical schools, and business schools require applicants to have at least two years of full time full time job experience.
In recent years, Tzulhon has become a local centre for studying abroad, there are a significant number of foreign students from Akamyokulta studying in colleges and universities of Tzulhon.
Most hospitals in Tzulhon are public. There is a national healthcare insurance program covering all citizens in Tzulhon.
On average, there are around 10 hospital beds and 3 physicians for every 1000 people.
Medical education is highly prestigious; however, there are virtually no bachelor-level medical education programmes - medical education programmes are postgraduate, and people must obtain a bachelor degree before studying to be a medical doctor. The only bachelor-level medical educations are those related to nursing.
Before 1999, forced sterilisation was practised on people diagnosed with a mental illness, intellectual disabilities or developmental disabilities. This included people with autism spectrum disorders, ADHD, personality disorders, etc. Criminals who committed violent crimes were required to be castrated in order to be eligible for parole. Forced sterilisation was abolished in 1999 after Tzulhon had became democratic, the rule requiring all parolee to be sterilised was also abolished in 1999; however, the use of sterilisation on newborns with a mental illness, intellectual disabilities or developmental disabilities is still very common and widespread. It is estimated that during 1950-1999, about 2,500,000 people in Tzulhon have been subjects of forced sterilization, and even today, as sterilization is still a widespread practice, it is estimated that about 60,000-90,000 children under 12 are still sterilized each year.
Due to the economic growth, the nutritional conditions of Tzulhon have greatly improved, the average height of adults have increased substantially during 1950-1985; however, the growing rate of obesity has become a major health concern in Tzulhon. As of 2019, about 47.5% of the population are either overweight(BMI > 24) or obese(BMI > 30), and about 19% of the population are obese. The obesity rate in females is substantially higher than that in males. Surveys found that about 22% of males and 73% of females over the age of 15 are either overweight or obese; besides, about 9% of males and 29% of females over the age of 15 are obese.
Traditional beliefs among many ethnic groups in Tzulhon are polytheistic and animistic in nature, deities from Qonklaks, Camic and Dhwer are venerated along with native deities. Monasticism is not practised in Tzulhon in any forms; however Pashaism has become common since the 16th century, due to Terminian influence, though most adherents to Pashaism in Tzulhon still venerate traditional deities, and Pashaists in Tzulhon just don’t see the traditional deities as true gods but just supernatural forces.
Tzulhon is a multiracial country with a divrsified native cultures; among the native peoples, the culture of Harish people are the most prominent among the native cultures of Tzulhon.
For foreign influences, Qonklese culture has by far the greatest influence on Tzulhon culture in general; besides, Mani cultures, Ekuosian cultures, Terminian culture, Kavrinian cultures and Theweric cultures also have recognizable influences on Tzulhon culture.
After the democratization of Tzulhon, so far the mass media contents from Lhavres have the greatest influence on the popular culture in Tzulhon; media contents from Ekuosian countries like Veridia, Barradiwa, Letzia have also gained some influence; media contents from all other countries have at most an insignificant presence and don’t have much influences on the popular culture of Tzulhon.
Being a multiracial country, different peoples in different areas have different rites.
Like most pre-modern calendars, the Tzulhon calendar is a luni-solar calendar. The length of a month strictly follows the phase of the moon, the length of a year is generally 354 days, and uses leap months to close up the gap between the usual calendar year(354 days) and the solar year(365.24219 days). There is one leap month in every three years, and there are 7 leap months in every 19 years.
Architecture styles vary from place to place; however, a substantial Qonklese influence can be seen on pre-modern public buildings in many areas. especially in the east coast; however, most of the pre-modern buildings were destroyed during the chaoses in the 20th century.
Qonklese arts have a deep influence on Tzulhon arts. Traditional arts often show certain resemblances with Qonklese arts in styles; however, a distinctive Tzulhonic art style is emerging in recent years.
Traditioal Qonklese music have an influence on traditional Tzulhon music, many musical instruments used in Tzulhon music can find their roots in Qonklaks.
Pop music from Lhavres and Ekuosian countries like Veridia, Barradiwa, Letzia has gained much popularity in Tzulhon in recent years, pop musics from all other countries don't have a significant presence and have not gained the same level of popularity in Tzulhon.
Animations, films and TV dramas from Lhavres and Ekuosian countries like Veridia, Barradiwa, Letzia have gained much popularity in recent years; Besides, video games from Lenezan and Barradiwa have gained popularity in Tzulhon. Media contents from other countries have not gained the same level of popularity in Tzulhon.
Locally-produced films and animations have only gained limited popularity, although locally-produced films and animations enjoy financial subsidies from the government, and there are criticisms that the government has over-subsidised local producers of mass media so local filmmakers and animators have produced many non-market-oriented contents.
Mainstream Tzulhon cuisine is similar to that in other draconic countries. Wheat is the primary cereal grain with about three-quarters of grain products made of wheat flour and many dishes use indigenous ingredients. Potatoes has become a major food source along with wheat and barley.
Tzulhon is not known for delicacy, traditional Tzulhon dishes include fish and chips, sandwiches and vegetable salad.
Folk sports arisen locally are the most popular forms of sports in Tzulhon, but in recent years international sport competitions like football and martial arts are gaining popularity among the population. In Tzulhon, women's sports teams are generally much more competent than men's sports teams in international sporting events.
- There are societies that have human sacrifice on a large scale, like the Aztec Empire, but the Aztec Empire was highly unstable and was already on the verge of collapse when the Spanish people came.