Akamyokulta

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Presidential Republic of the Yokulta Islands
Ugnivanórtjúldŋoalám Agámjokuldaid ugnivanórtjùldńoalám agámjоkuldaid
Flag of Akamyokulta
Flag
Motto: "May your bow bring you welfare." / «Sónto vinin ahvoaine valjugat.»
Anthem: Islands, islands, of our people / Agámd, agámd, jokulduid
CapitalKoarátkeiŋ
Official languages Niryokulta
Recognised regional languages Ngumyokulta, Duryk
Minority languages Ngeyv
Ethnic groups (2018 estimate) 94% Yokulta
5.5% Duryk
0.5% Ngeyv
insignificant number of others
Religion 98% irreligious, atheist or agnostic
2% Ahpejokulčaldid
Demonym Yokulta, Yokultan, Akamyokultan
Government Presidential republic
 -  President Šielvi Ŋoarvis
Independence from Durykia
Population
 -  2015 census 52 494
HDI 0.712
high
Currency Yokulta Varkul (YVA)
Time zone (SCT-3:30)
Date format mm-dd-yyyy
Drives on the whatever side
Internet TLD .aj

Akamyokulta (Niryokulta: Agámjokulda agámjоkulda [ˈakæ:mjoˌkʰʊɫta]; Ngumyokulta: Agem’oǩõlda [ˈakemʲoˌxɤɫtɐ]), officially the Presidential Republic of the Yokulta Islands, is a country located in the northern area of the Sea of Alpa. The vast majority of population (over 70 %) lives on the Hatgagám island. The nearest countries are Ngeyvger, Durykia and Qgam. The Yokulta nation is withdrawn and often considered as xenophobic due to people's general disgust towards another races and most of the nations, what means that the number of migrant inhabitants is really small. It is also confirmed that more than 70% of total population is able to use a bow, so it is certain that archery is Akamyokulta's national sport.

The country consists of 18 larger islands and dozens of smaller, often uninhabited ones. According to 2015 census, there was 52 494 total inhabitants, with ~89% of them living in Sákčuitagámdŋuolašat (Southern Islands area); and ~28% of total population living in the capital Koarátkeiŋ's district.

It is supposed that Yokultans settled islands about 1,000 years back and were part of Durykia for a few decades until the islands gained independence in the 60s of 20th century.

Akamyokulta is politically a presidential republic with three administrative regions. The economy is based mainly on fishing, whaling and bow production. Languages spoken there include Niryokulta, the official language with a huge dialect spread due to long distances between single islands, and regional languages Ngeyv and Duryk, spoken mainly on the eastern islands by native minorities. These two languages are also the most often taught at Yokulta schools and is estimated that about 20-40% of Yokulta population is able to speak a second language on some level.

Etymology

Akamyokulta (in Niryokulta Agámjokulda) literally translates as 'my people land' (agám-jokul-d-a, land-human-PL-POSS.1S.NOM).

History

First settlers

As a part of Durykia

Independence

Geography

All Yokulta islands are located in the north of Sea of Alpa, between West Miraria and Alpa, west from Durykia, Ngeyvger and nortwest of Qgam. Akamyokulta is divided into three regions – Sákčutagámdŋuolašat, Šoalutagámdŋuolašat and Painutagámdŋuolašat, all of them consisting of 16 islands with population higher than 50 inhabitants and dozens of smaller islands with less than 50 inhabitans or uninhabited ones.

Sákčutagámdŋuolašat (lit. 'southern islands region'; abbr. SAŊ) is a region where capital Koarátkeiŋ is located and where lives the largest part of population, 47,470 inhabitants (2015 census), 45,716 of them living on the three biggest islands. The Arctic Circle runs through the middle of this region.

Painutagámdŋuolašat (lit. 'eastern islands region'; abbr. PAŊ) is a region with 3,773 inhabitants; county seat is Durigkeiŋ located on the Dianagám island. There lives the highest number of Duryk and Ngeyvic people due to short distance to both countries of Durykia and Ngeyvger.

Šoalutagámdŋuolašat (lit. 'northern islands region'; abbr. ŠAŊ) is region with the smallest number of inhabitants, 1,072; county seat is Ŋümtióŋ located on the Ŋümtagám island.

There are also minor islands located within the regions with population of 169 inhabitants.

Geology

Climate

Akamyokulta has a combination of subpolar oceanic climate and arctic climate (or tundra), in Köppen classification Cfc and ET.

Climate data for Akamyokulta
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
6.0
(42.8)
11.1
(52)
17.3
(63.1)
20.9
(69.6)
22.0
(71.6)
23.2
(73.8)
22.4
(72.3)
19.7
(67.5)
15.1
(59.2)
9.3
(48.7)
4.4
(39.9)
23.2
(73.8)
Average high °C (°F) −9.7
(14.5)
−8.5
(16.7)
−2.2
(28)
3.9
(39)
10.5
(50.9)
15.7
(60.3)
18.8
(65.8)
14.6
(58.3)
8.2
(46.8)
2.8
(37)
−4.5
(23.9)
−6.9
(19.6)
3.56
(38.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.4
(9.7)
−10.4
(13.3)
−4.7
(23.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
6.1
(43)
13.2
(55.8)
15.5
(59.9)
13.3
(55.9)
6.9
(44.4)
−1.4
(29.5)
−7.8
(18)
−10.0
(14)
0.67
(33.21)
Average low °C (°F) −17.9
(−0.2)
−14.8
(5.4)
−10.9
(12.4)
−5.1
(22.8)
1.8
(35.2)
6.2
(43.2)
11.6
(52.9)
9.3
(48.7)
5.4
(41.7)
−0.3
(31.5)
−13.7
(7.3)
−19.5
(−3.1)
−3.99
(24.82)
Record low °C (°F) −38.1
(−36.6)
−34.3
(−29.7)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−22.1
(−7.8)
−11.6
(11.1)
−8.4
(16.9)
0.5
(32.9)
−5.9
(21.4)
−10.8
(12.6)
−24.2
(−11.6)
−35.3
(−31.5)
−37.4
(−35.3)
−38.1
(−36.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 103.4
(4.071)
95.8
(3.772)
82.5
(3.248)
58.4
(2.299)
35.5
(1.398)
31.7
(1.248)
59.9
(2.358)
67.2
(2.646)
79.8
(3.142)
91.8
(3.614)
105.3
(4.146)
110.1
(4.335)
921.4
(36.277)
Average precipitation days 20.9 17.3 15.8 12.2 10.8 8.0 10.0 13.1 14.9 17.0 21.3 23.4 184.7
Average snowy days 20.7 16.8 14.0 10.1 4.7 0.0 0.0 2.3 3.8 13.5 20.1 22.3 128.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 10.8 28.3 63.5 121.5 179.6 138.4 112.9 99.7 60.1 24.8 15.3 8.7 863.6
Source: Yokultan Meteorological Institute

Biodiversity

Politics

Government

Administrative divisions

There are three regions as described in geography section that are divided into 8 municipalities.

Name County seat Official language(s) Population
Hatgalaš Koarátkeiŋ Niryokulta 35,103
Vainutlaš Nokeiŋ Niryokulta 10,613
Duriglaš Durigkeiŋ Niryokulta, Duryk 3,453
Seilaš Seila Niryokulta 1,754
Ŋümtelaš Ŋümtióŋ Ngumyokulta, Niryokulta 830
Ŋeivlaš Šoasal Niryokulta, Ngeyv 320
Šoalaš Ǩeusal Ngumyokulta, Niryokulta 242
Đapagámdlaš (minor islands) none official; under administration of Koarátkeiŋ Niryokulta 169

Foreign relations

Military

The country has only the navy – there is 203 active soldiers (2015 census).

Economy

Transport

Yokulta people use mainly boats to travel between single islands. Very small percentage of people owns a car to travel on the islands between towns and villages, so the most common way of transporation is walking (especially in urban areas) and animal-based transport. There is also no official driving side. Since there is not a lot of roads and even less cars and other vehicles (since minimum of people are able to afford a car), Yokultans can drive on whatever side because the risk of any accidents is minimal.

Transport by aeroplanes is considerably limited since there is only one international airport, located in Koarátkeiŋ, and a few private ones that are however used only occasionally.

Energy

Science and technology

Tourism

A photography of aurora borealis by Keika Šoalieŋvis taken on Sirisidagám island.

Despite Yokulta people's disgust towards foreigners (over 70 % of Yokultans claimed they wouldn't want their neighbours to be foreigners/people of different race or species), tourism is quite advanced. The biggest tourist attractions are colonies of puffins and observation of various species of whales and other cetaceans or fish at sea.

During winter months, visitors head to islands mainly because of watching the northern lights, icebergs and harsh arctic nature and its landscapes since certain parts of Akamyokulta are nicknamed "photographers' paradise".

Every year, more or less than 100,000 tourists arrive to the country (98,725 arrivals in 2015).

Demographics

Ethnic groups

The majority of population are ethnic Yokultans, the rest are Durykians, that live especially in Eastern islands region, and insignificant number of Ngeyvic people.

Urbanisation

Akamyokulta has fairly high rate of urbanisation, with about 74 % of population living in urban areas. The rest is living in smaller villages or in inland solitude, mostly on farms. About 2 % live in isolation on smaller islands with no connection to villages or towns (in the year 1975, it was 8 %). In the last two decades, urban population has increased, leaving some islands, especially smaller ones in the north, totally uninhabited.

Language

Official language is Niryokulta. Two minority languages are Ngeyv and Duryk spoken mainly in Eastern islands region (altogether it's estimated there is 2,000 to 4,000 speakers). These two languages are the most often taught at Yokulta schools and it's estimated that about 20-40 % of Yokulta population is able to speak a second language on some level (~32 % Yokultans can speak Duryk on some level including native speakers and ~8 % can speak Ngeyv on whatever level, including L1 speakers). Most persons working in tourist industry know one of the major languages spoken on Sahar.

One of the regional languages is Ngumyokulta, a dialect of Niryokulta spoken in Northern Islands Region where it is considered an official language; it has about 1,200 speakers.

Niryokulta has a big dialectal spread due to long distances between single islands and regions, with about 55,000 native speakers and insignificant number of L2 speakers. There live around 48,000 native speakers in Akamyokulta, though the remaining 7,000 lives in Durykia, Ngeyvger and some other, mainly surrounding, countries.

Education

Education in Akamyokulta is free for its citizens because all schools are public – that is, foreigners may pay for educating in the country.

Most of Yokultans have only the basic education because they are supposed to work in fishing or other industries or take care of animals. Smaller number though have high school education; number of these people later make bows, boats or any other products or works in social or other services, mainly in tourist industry. Only very small percentage finished college, generally because of the fact there is only one university in the country, located in capital Koarátkeiŋ. Minimum of Yokultans study abroad, mainly in Durykia, Ngeyvger and Tzulhon. Because of considerable interest of younger generations in studying or working abroad, certain Yokulta schools offer language courses for Duryk, Ngeyv and Harish.

A number of children is educated by their parents at home until they reach the age when they are partially independent so they can go study on their own, that is 10 to 13 years. This happens mainly on smaller islands too far from islands where the school is located. This caused that compulsory school attendance can vary between three to eight years in single regions and towns in the country. That is, children in Koarátkeiŋ go to school since they are 7 years old and stay there eight years, whereas children in rural and sparsely populated areas stay in elementary school for only five to three years, depending on their situation.

Healthcare

Healthcare is free for all residents of the country; foreigners may pay some charges.

Culture

Religion

About 10 % of Yokultans claimed their religion is the Yokulta indigenous one (Nierva Ŋeivis is known for their practise of Ahpejokulčaldid) and another 15 % stated that religion has some impact on their life. The rest is atheist, agnostic or irreligious, or possibly follows other religion widespread on Sahar.

Names

Yokultan names make an important part of the religion.

A number of Yokultan given names are unisex, though most is gendered. Surnames usually end with -vis, an adjective marker, and they usually are just normal adjectives found in the language. In the past, they were given to significant persons; surnames gained popularity among other people in 20th century. The surname always follows first name.

Since not a lot of people are married so the parents have both different surnames, the surname is usually inherited patrilineally; in some cases, a child is given surnames of both parents. Later, the child can choose whether they want to bear both names or just one of them, so they can give up one. It is though considered disrespectful towards whole family. If a child of person or persons that bear two surnames has to be named, usually it is hard what surname to choose, too.

There also exist middle names. All of them are unisex and they are derived from Niryokulta words for things, objects and natural phenomenons important in Yokultan indigenous religion; they usually end with -u. A person is allowed to choose one themselves. Middle names were popular in a past, though nowadays they are less common and used rather by religious people.

The last kind of name that can be given is a tribe name. It is used only for people practising the Yokultan religion and it is patrilineally inherited. They are rare and some people even give up the name. The overall order of names is: first–middle–surname–tribe.

Architecture

Typical Yokultan house, located in Koarátkeiŋ's rural area

Yokultan architecture prefer functionality over beauty and appearance, therefore local settlements can look messy and unsightly. The buildings take use mainly of stone and wood, the latter imported from Durykia, Ngeyvger and Tzulhon since Akamyokulta has minimal tree cover, but also some other, for example sheet metal and many other materials. The houses are usually painted in color, frequently used is blue, yellow and white (national colours) and also red.

The settlements usually have pretty big total area even though most of have small population because they do not build the houses in excessive proximity and between single buildings have rather bigger distance, generally 10 to 50 meters. This applies mainly to villages; in bigger towns, Koarátkeiŋ and Nokeiŋ for example, are houses built way closer to each other.

In the past, Yokultans made use of animal leather and bones, mainly the whale ones, to build their dwellings – temporal tents and yurts since back then they were primarily nomadic hunters, later also skilled fishers and whale hunters. Later, they little by little started to use wood to build both boats and houses. Since the material was mainly from Durykia, Yokultan buildings are affected by Duryk architecture.

Art

Literature

Literature in Akamyokulta was not favoured until second half of 20th century where it gained popularity with a series of crime novels published in the 50s by Pierm Sahču Šienvis. A number of authors followed him, together with Nierva Ŋeivis, today's most popular crime novel author.

There is also a small number of books from educational literature.

Music

Film and theatre

Cuisine

Yokulta cuisine consists mainly of fish and other seafood because they are easily approachable and cheap; families making a living from fishing consume fish on a daily basis. That results in great popularity of šahojaluhk, a fermented shark meat that is considered Akamyokulta's national dish, though by foreigners is described as "the worst food they've ever eaten".

Popular beverage is Duryk iced tea, Lisqupybung (Lísqupibuŋ [ˈlisqʊpʰɪˌpʊŋ] in Niryokulta), and among the alcoholic ones, it is vodka or fruit wine.

Whaling

Whaling is commonplace in Akamyokulta. Annually number of 1,000 at maximum whales is hunted, mainly due to regulations. In the past, it was commonly over 3,000 animals.

Sport

Sport is an important part of life of Yokultans, as most of them are used to take care of cattle and animals in general or to walking long distances since only a small number of population owns a car. Overall said, they are quite active and they like to sport – more than 50 % claimed they do so every day. The most favorite and also the national sport is archery. It originated from a way of hunting typical of Yokultans, a bowfishing, and it slowly became not only the way how to get food but also recreational activity. It is estimated that more than 90 % of islands' population have shot a bow at least once, over 70 % shoot regularly and about 10 % shoot proffesionally.

A number of Yokultans also likes to fish, using various methods – with rods, spears, harpoons and nets; these are the most common ways.

Bowfishing

Bowfishing is a method of fishing practised by Yokultans. It uses specialised archery equipment, notable is the use of arrows attached to a reel mounted to a bow. Nowadays, it is no more used by bigger companies since it is disadvantageous compared to fishing nets frequently used now. Though, every village annually organises collective hunts called valjuokínniev using only special bowfishing equipment.

Symbols

Flag

Akamyokulta's flag

The flag has four colours – white, yellow, blue and dark blue, representing typical phenomenons of the islands. White symbolises snow. Yellow are sun rays, referring to arctic nights with little or none daylight. Blue is the sea surrounding the islands and dark blue circle is a moon that has a special place in the indigenous religion.

See also