Cananganamese language

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Cananganamese
Ū́vō
RegionAsuranesia, Nagu, Boroso
EthnicityCanamic peoples
Native speakers97 million L1; Unknown L2  (2018)
Language family
Official status
Official language inCananganam, Sunha
Recognised minority language inMujansa
Regulated byCananganamese Linguistic Society
CWS code

The Cananganamese language, or simply Cananganamese, is an Asuranesian language that originated in the areas of the Cilte Gulf. Today it is sometimes considered a world language, with its distribution as a language of commerce throughout the Asuranesian macro-region, both historically and presently. Spoken by over 100 million speakers, it is one of the most spoken languages on Sahar.

Cananganamese descends from Classical Cananganamese, its name sake, having its first developments as a formulated entity by the 8th century, where some writers started to adopt orthographic traditions more aligned with local pronunciations. The first systematic use of the language appears in documents dated to some time within the 12th century, prior to the collapse of the Cananganamese empire, despite some scholarly accounts that claim the shift to the modern tongue was a result of the loss of the empire. As a descendant of the classical language, it shares a high degree of mutual intelligibility with Anchashi, where upon both languages have a level of 73-81% lexical similarity. Both languages were affected by various peoples and minority groups within the empire, but their shared ancestry expresses itself despite these influences.

History

Geographical Distribution

Grammar

Main article: Cananganamese Grammar.

Phonology

Consonants

Cananganamese Consonants
Bilabial Dental-Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ (ŋ)
Plosive Plain p ʈ~ʈʂ c~tɕ k
Aspirated t̪ʰ ʈʰ~ʈʂʰ cʰ~tɕʰ
Voiced b ɖ~ɖʐ ɟ~dʑ g
Breathy Voiced d̪ʱ ɖʱ~ɖʐʱ ɟʱ~dʑʱ
Fricative ɸ s ʂ~ɕ ɦ
Approximant Plain ʋ ɽ j
Lateral ɭ
Aspirated ɽ̊ʱ
Aspirated Lateral ɭʱ

Cananganamese has an expansively vast inventory of consonants, being most notable for its four way sub-articulation distinction on both its plosives and approximants. This core set of 34 unique consonants are inherited from Classical Cananganamese. In addition to this four way distinction, consonants may also appear as a geminate or long consonant, which may sometimes allophonically create a fortis-lenis distinction. Despite all of this, word-final consonants in Cananganamese are exceptionally rare, almost exclusively appearing as /t/, /m/ or /ɦ/ with the genitive case and various particles, though these may vary from dialect to dialect. /ŋ/ is exceptionally rare in Cananganamese, having no dedicated character of its own in the Cananganamese script, it appears inconsistently as an allophone of /n/, as some speakers back it to the velar position to fortify its distinction from retroflex /ɳ/. This sound may also appear in the dialects of those with greater Dagyelic influences within loan words.

Vowels

Cananganamese Vowels
Front Central Back
Closed i i: u u:
Mid e e: ə~ɵ o o:
Open a:

Compared to the consonants, the vowel inventory is much smaller, however they all have realized long contrast forms in addition to pitch accent. Pitch accent is best displayed in Cananganamese as it may shift according to grammar, making it absolutely necessary for distinguishing register and many words. For example; khaṭṭḗ, meaning package, is distinguished from khā́ttē, meaning battle, by both vowel length and pitch accent. Some dialects may also shift the pitch accent into a 3 or 4 way tonal contrast, while some devolve the pitch system in favor of stress-based patterns.

Relation to other languages