Cannibalism by country
Cannibalism is defined as the eating of the flesh of one's own species and, in many countries, the flesh of other sentient species. It is illegal in the majority of nations wherein it is considered immoral and repulsive, while other countries allow it with varying stipulations. It may also occur in small amounts even in countries where it is not legal; likewise, in places where it is technically legal, it may not actually be practiced.
Some countries which generally ban cannibalism may have specific "shipwreck clauses" or other situations in which the usual law is waived.
Countries with legal cannibalism
Cannibalism is legal in Achiyitqana but tightly regulated. There are two legally sanctioned forms: funerary and subsistence. The former type is referred to as a consumption funeral and practiced by some minority ethnic groups of the vodholk species and is protected under Achiyitqan law as a religious practice. The latter is performed only in times of great destitution and famine, and almost never occurs in the modern day; it is similar to a standard shipwreck clause but requires that the consumed person either die of natural causes or willingly sacrifice themself for the survival of others. In cases where a person is killed and eaten without their permission, criminal charges of murder or manslaughter and desecration of the dead will be pressed.
It is never legal to consume the flesh of a non-citizen or to sell any part of a deceased person as a commercial product. Furthermore, the consumption of a sentient person by a member of a different genus is universally prohibited.
Consumption funerals account for approximately 16% of all Achiyitqan vodholk funerary rights or about 2% of all Achiyitqan funerals. It may also be practiced by votef and human Achiyitqans with close ties to vodholk communities. In this rite the deceased is consumed by family and close friends and, in smaller communities, neighbours and village elders.
Mourners must apply for a permit to hold a consumption funeral and it is illegal to hold one without informed consent of the deceased (given before death) or their family (if under forty months of age) and a thorough examination by a coroner. In 1986 strict health and safety guidelines were introduced in Achiyitqana which require specific cleaning, handling, and preparation of the flesh and the exclusion of brain, spinal and optic tissues to prevent the potential spread of prion diseases. Depending on the cause of death, certain other tissues may be excluded by discretion of the coroner. These and any other leftover tissues are either cremated or exposed to the elements (in certain restricted locations), where they are often eaten by scavenging animals.
These legal requirements have caused tensions between the federal and local governments, especially after the annexation of the primarily-vodholk states of Tesktóso'et and Puulsuwa in 2009, where restrictions had previously been laxer. There have been several legal battles fought over the right to a consumption funeral where the deceased did not have a formal will or did not state their position in clear enough language.
Tuyo does not have any laws against cannibalism itself, although it is extremely rare and is not socially acceptable. When it does occur it is generally in very poor areas in periods of famine. Those caught committing cannibalism may be tried on suspicion of murder, and the family of the deceased may press charges for the desecration of human remains. Known cannibals are severely socially stigmatized.
Countries where cannibalism is illegal
While intraspecies or "true" cannibalism (consumption of other members of one's own species) has been illegal in Astalva for centuries, the consumption of other sapient species (interspecies cannibalism) and disagreements over the morality of such behaviors have played a significant role in the nation's history. It is believed that the practice amongst the Zveahs of preparing and preserving human war casualties for consumption was a major factor in their territorial expansion, which ultimately helped lead them to become the predominant culture of Astalva today. Despite this, the Zveahs still believed that all sapient lives are equally valuable, and those who became too eager to eat other sapients would often be shamed by their peers as a result.
In the modern day, consumption of other sapients amongst Zveahs is very uncommon outside of war. It has become further stigmatized due to its continued and controversial popularity amongst the Thazians of southeastern Astalva, a group notorious throughout history for their deliberate hunting of humans for food, even during times of relative food abundance. Regional Thazian authorities have been the subject of multiple scandals regarding human meat trafficking and various policies resulting in increased human mortality rates over the past century. The government of Astalva finally passed a law banning all forms of domestic and organized interspecies cannibalism at the national level in 1997, following the indictment of several high-level prison officials for collusion with human meat trafficking rings. In addition to making interspecies cannibalism legally equivalent to intraspecies ("true") cannibalism, the law also finally added some narrow legal exceptions for certain life-or-death situations or for religious reasons (only at the request of the deceased and subject to scrutiny).
Under Turesaa, Cananganam's official state religion, same-species cannibalism is sanctioned as being permitted in times of need or otherwise avoiding waste, however, most institutions of Cananganam since the 1920s have made efforts to stamp out cannibalism entirely after concerns of head-hunting cults had formed. While this contradicts with the general teachings as proscribed in official texts, many Lunukist scholars state that such matters are only for emergencies and that the only safe and respectable method of burial practice is burial at sea or mummification until such acts are possible by the deceased's families. Despite this, many fringe scholars approach the matter endorsing funerary cannibalism much to the opposition of the state government.
Fals Empire and Fáknir Republic
Under Eelgledism, cannibalism and the consumption of other sapients is associated with devil worship and is subsequently strictly forbidden. As Eelgledism is the majority religion of both the Fals Empire and Fáknir Republic, and foundational to their legal systems, it is therefore illegal under any circumstance. Before Eelgledism became the predominant religion, the consumption of parts of other sapients was common at least in ritual practice, and in times of war between a Fals and non-Fals faction attested to be common. The latter continued to be the case well after the rise of Eelgledism however, in the western Eelgledist sphere until at least 1450.
The Karakat Confederation, nowadays a province of the Fals Empire, is an exception to this. Religious consumption of human body parts, in combination with psychedelic substances is semi-common in the Arvian (eastern) part of the Confederation, supported by an active human-smuggling network. While the Imperial government has decried the practice, its lack of authority within the Karakat Confederation means that they have instead had to rely on pressuring the Confederation into cracking down on smugglers and client priests, which due to the extensive influence of the Karakat priesthood on the Confederate government has had only moderate effect.
In Komania Cannibalism is considered an act of self-corruption and thus is penalised under the Death Penalty. Following the strict doctrine of the Shabadist state, cannibalism is prohibited under any circumstance and is one of the few laws that are applicable to foreigners under the law of Foreign Neutrality.
Cannibalism is not in and of itself a crime--a person can't be charged with the crime of "cannibalism"--but does fall under the bounds of desecration of the dead and improper disposal of a corpse, which are crimes, and this is how known cases have been prosecuted in the past. Consumption of a sentient being is also considered strongly abhorrent in the native religious practices, which dictates that bodies should ideally be cremated to facilitate the passage of the spirit from the physical to spiritual world. (burial and subsequent decomposition is an acceptable but unpopular alternative) There is no explicit "shipwreck" exception; the taboo is strong enough that many Sanmrans would say it's better to starve than to eat a sentient being, regardless of how they died. (they might not feel the same way if they were in such a situation, of course...)
Tabiqa criminalizes cannibalism under two different laws, the Depraved Desecration Act and the Policies against improper handling of human remains. The former specifically targets "recreational" cannibalism, necrophilia, dismemberment, and other "gross" actions against the corpse of a sentient individual; the latter is typically invoked against morticians, coroners, and others who work with the deceased, but is also the law invoked to punish those who perform cannibalism during famines or other emergencies—a much lesser offense, but one that is nonetheless still punishable by fines or imprisonment (up to 4 years). The Depraved Desecration Act makes specific reference to Xhiuist funerary cannibalism and, as such, has been (unsuccessfully) challenged in court as being discriminatory towards the small Xhiuist population in Tabiqa.
Notzel criminalizes cannibalism, all states prohibit cannibalism without justifications.