Contemporary Mherdic toponymy

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Placenames in the Mherdic languages follow conventions specific to the individual language, but generally have a tendency to consist of more than one element sometimes connected with adpositions and other grammatical markers. These elements can be a wide variety of concepts, such as for example the type of settlement, region, landmarks and landforms, origin, a personal name, species and ethnicity, and so forth.

Thaaft

Native

  1. aa ("mountain stream"; cf. Fáknir á - "creek"). Examples: Feleekaa, Aavac, Sukuuvestaa.
  2. as-, s-. As settlements. Examples: Astex, Astaina, Site, Smaaleng, Snaptir, Sorgaav, Saktimir, Sangtav, Segev.
  3. afoon ("hall"). Examples: Thpelafoon, Salbürafoon.
  4. aqlüüit ("Eelgledist temple"). Examples: Ukoodaqlüüit.
  5. bar ("highland"). Examples: Allibar, Annabar, Baraxeed, Barnitagst, Ortobar, Heemobar.
  6. bell ("dammed lake", "mountain lake"). Bell Reüt, Bell Ikol, Belltaam.
  7. boor-, bor-. Originally Boorian settlements. Also seen in suffixes. Examples: Aaboor, Booreplistifren, Booretex, Booryala, Soboora, Talbooris, Uutbor, Sotbor.
  8. bors ("foundry"). Examples: Ootkabors, Kimonbors, Litoovbors.
  9. bust, bus ("clay"). Found in the names of settlements on clay-rich soils, especially along rivers. Examples: Kelbus, Erbus.
  10. dal, tal ("acre", "field"). Examples: Bildal, Fuundal, Imertal.
  11. delg ("hill", sometimes in the sense of "stack"). Examples: Eexirdelg, Isikedelg.
  12. ekki, (e/V)k ("place (with)", "settlement", "site"). Examples: Kaspekki, Meelekkig, Thnepekki, Iyyonekki, Aayekki, Eekekki, Rauek, Kecek, Pogašček, Sofk.
  13. ent ("large island"). Also common for the largest or most important island in a group of multiple, regardless of size. Examples: Heranent, Boarrent.
  14. ethel ("river mouth", "estuary"). Examples: Akkilethel, Omeneinethel, Sukuuvestethel.
  15. fa/faa-, faaknir-. Fáknir settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Faavekk, Faadelg, Faaraav, Faaforke, Faaknirtüü, Faakars, Farkemas, Faykas.
  16. flor ("valley"). Examples: Erivortflor, Konolaflor, Itaanužiflor.
  17. flooč ("forest"). Examples: Floočüdelg, Soorflooč.
  18. füü ("field"). Examples: Jtkafüü, Eetifüü, Aralfüü.
  19. gilt ("colony", "settlement"). Examples: Haralgilt, Iyyonthfalgilt, Tarkügilt, Aakrilgilt, Ixetgilt.
  20. grex, -rex, -rk/-rx ("creek", "stream"). Historically also used for rivers, sees several levels of fossilisation in compounds. Examples: Taaktagrex, Palitarx, Thfalkaakrex, Xepirgrex.
  21. haral-, har-. Haral settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Haralinaan, Haridekki, Haralgilt, Harleeg, Harkain, Harron, Nemharaltex.
  22. heed-, heod-, hee-. Originally Heodian settlements. Examples: Heedion, Heemia, Heemobar.
  23. hees-. Originally Heesian settlements. Examples: Heesitalg.
  24. heer, -eer ("spring", "source of a river"). Examples: Ravaleer, Redeneer, Katarheer, Omeneinheer, Simeteer, Sivinsheer.
  25. hun, -hu, -un ("large group of people", "everyone at- ", "people of- "). Confer contemporary Thaaft uue - "all". Examples: Lejhu, Emmihun, Inilokmihhun, Soorhun, Aaythun.
  26. hütaa ("land"; cf. Farresset yxhút). Examples: Wulahütaa, Nemütaa, Oýtütaa, Prinasütaa, Soirinütaa, Nemütaa.
  27. ikol-. Ikolian settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Ikolinis, Ikoloonis, Ikolastin.
  28. inaan ("harbour"). Examples: Pfefarinaan, Sommosinaan, Katarinaan.
  29. ion ("lagoon", "swamp"; cf. Ellsic agh). Ultimately of Boorian origin. Examples: Andion, Ecion, Heedion, Sindion.
  30. ivoci ("peninsula", "spit"). Examples: Ivocinaan.
  31. iyyon ("new"). Especially seen in settlements founded after 1500. Examples: Iyyonekki, Iyyonistosen, Iyyonfaagilt.
  32. kaak, kaaki ("stone"). Examples: Thrakaak, Thfalkaakrex, Kaaknizet.
  33. kas, qas ("trail", "path"). Examples: Faykas, Dokkas, Anuurkas, Garkas, Gurqas, Kolqas.
  34. kinü ("house").
  35. kos ("clearing"). Examples: Rafkos, Kos.
  36. kwüü ("ford"). Examples: Tukkakwüü, Gessaankwüü.
  37. leeg ("island"). Examples: Thtaplaleeg, Vikaleeg, Mineleeg.
  38. lüoo/lioo-, lüo/lio-. Ellsic settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Lüookookin, Lioviretna.
  39. mess-, meth-. Messian settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Meth, Messauir, Rimess, Metherir.
  40. minu ("oven", "bakehouse"). Examples: Kimomminu, Slüüminu, Tagminu.
  41. multi ("market"). Examples: Kazaanmulti, Qritmulti, Gaammulti.
  42. müüit ("confluence", or "council", "assembly"). Examples: Kohimüüit.
  43. nes, nis, nas ("homestead"). Examples: Ikolinis, Noglanis, Ognis, Pallanis, Savonis, Vritarnis, Tiakaraines, Linas, Runas, Uglisternas.
  44. nizet ("home"). Examples: Dapnizet, Kaaknizet, Nizettapay.
  45. oori ("shop"). Examples: Bastoori, Bossoori, Vannoori.
  46. puv ("house"). Examples: Nelvupuv, Puviteev, Kieelipuv, Nuugpuv.
  47. raav ("courthouse"). Examples: Faaraav, Taayraav.
  48. rog ("bath"). Examples: Falrog, Telerog, Yeelrog.
  49. sala, saala, sela. Indicates places where drying of produce occurred, also encompasses markets where these goods were sold. Examples: Saalanis, Salgraar, Selajr.
  50. skeep ("grove"). Examples: Uumskeep, Šatarskeep.
  51. taaz, tas ("tip", "overlook", "head (of a landscape)"). Examples: Pautas, Vitas.
  52. taina, teina ("village"). Examples: Unertaina, Vaataina, Nuuteina.
  53. talg ("basin", "depth"). Examples: Heesitalg.
  54. taser ("mountain").
  55. tex ("city") Examples: Astex, Natütex, Aliyaatex, Booretex, Thfaltex, Jbetex.
  56. thkikaak ("mine"). Examples: Raalthkikaak, Küükimthkikaak, Drangthkikaak, Tareisthkikaak.
  57. (th)pel/pal-, (th)pül-. Pels settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Thpelafoon, Palitarx, Pülitex, Thpülvoor.
  58. tuu, tuue ("smithy"). Examples: Rautuu, Eeleytuu.
  59. tüü ("water"; cf. Fáknir te, Karakat di/ti/eti, Ellsic ə, Finnic ta, Termian ta, Pelsic do, Salbür do, Haralic du). Generic hydronymic marker. Examples: Slüütüü, Isiketüü.
  60. tüüve ("water"). Presumed defunct diminutive suffix; instances are found in names of generally small bodies of water and their nearby villages. Examples: Jstüüve, Tüüveligorva.
  61. uusin ("coast", "shore"). General for either seas, lakes, or rivers. Examples: Feleekuusin, Gooluusin.
  62. vekk ("arch", "gate", sometimes "bridge"). Examples: Faavekk, Ivekk.
  63. vest, ves ("loghouse"). Examples: Sukuuvestaa, Moves, Oovest.
  64. vifit ("garden"). Examples: Tanirvifit, Fillüvifit, Nivifit.
  65. vyr ("fort", "castle"). Examples: Daskevyr, Soktevyr, Soorvyr.
  66. wluul ("bridge"). Examples: Lvoowluul.
  67. wula, -(V)la ("river"; cf. Karakat bált, Fáknir pols, Finnic pousu). Examples: Iliwula, Marawula, Volkorwula, Erivortla, Kelyula.

Loanwords

  1. dau ("large island"). Possible from *taɣ ("island") from a substrate Aktari language. Common especially in the Haralland dialect of Thaaft, often through calqued Haralic placenames, as in Haralic tow/tew ("island") is the general word for island, of the same origin. Examples: Raudau, Siardau.
  2. ij ("large settlement"). From Haralic ("walled settlement"). Examples: Zükij, Spákij, Darkelij.
  3. kam, kom ("settlement", "village"). Presumably from a substrate Aktari languages, through adoption by Kiorian languages. Examples: Kufaskam, Serkom.
  4. mal, mel, mol ("river"). And similar variations. Presumed to be from a substate Aktari languages spoken on the Zaak Peninsula, and thus through adoption of the toponyms by the Kiorian speakers that inhabited the landscape after them. Possibly from the same source as Contemporary Aktari ɢaɹ ("creek with cleared margins"). Examples: Meeliban, Meelekkig, Omel, Malam, and numerous small streams.
  5. tek ("hill"). From Boorian tek. Examples: Qestek, Baxtek, Breqtek, Güktek, Velintek.

Karakat

Native[1]

  1. agia(h)-. Akiaian Karakat settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Agiabvazë, Agiahëgax, Agiabinizë.
  2. arba(j)-, arva(ž)-. Arvian Karakat settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Arvaždarš, Arvažili, Arvamrabag, Arvažnöme.
  3. bahë, baxö ("walled settlement", "city"). Examples: Savbaxö, Gramabahë.
  4. bëgaj, butšaš ("island"). Examples: Rugabëgaj, Rirëbëgaj.
  5. bvazë, biwadzö, snava ("forest"). Used in the names of places in, near, or by a forest. Examples: Agiabvazë, Bóloissnava, Ërzëhaxmadëbvazë.
  6. binizë, bindzö ("harbour"). Examples: Agiabinizë, Cëxjbinizë, Ziabinizë.
  7. cva, tsava, sgein ("lower", "before"). Examples: Adligicva, Cubzicva, Dögutsava, Tserbetsava, Ardazditsava.
  8. cxia, tsaia, skaiá ("upper", "after"). Examples: Adligicva, Ömrutsaia, Ixdzatsaia, Rötartsaia.
  9. darj, darš, saras ("vilca tree"). Settlements named after sacred vilca trees. Examples: Arvaždarš, Šukudarš, Saras.
  10. di, ti, eti ("water"). Examples: Bëzdi, Muxjdi, Cubzidi, Aplanti.
  11. eba, iba, tón ("village", "settlement"). Examples: Ubëreba, Garëeba, Jarbëxeba.
  12. eru, iro ("hamlet", "small village"). Commonly seen on islands. In Akiaian Karakat, this word is increasingly shifting toward meaning only "village on an island". Examples: Lenderu, Inaro.
  13. ëxj, höxaš, bált ("river"). Examples: Cëxjbinizë, Lexelëxj.
  14. ëxz, ixdz, iht ("jabuticaba tree"). Settlements named sacred jabuticaba trees. Examples: Ražanixdz, Ixdzatsaia.
  15. garë-, garew-, karél-. Haral settlements, or settlements that originally were. Garëeba.
  16. haxmadë, axmar, ainara ("shrine", "temple"). Examples: Ërzëhaxmadëbvazë.
  17. hëgax, higax ("stone"). Settlements on rock outcrops, generally. Marhëgax, Šörmhigax, Agiahëgax.
  18. ubër-, uber-, sbial-. Pels or Salbür settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Ubërdarj, Ubëreba, Ubërdi, Sbialsio.
  19. uran, wuran, tieil ("hill", "mountain"). Examples: Ramhöxašiželharxdzödularvažuneheswurantsatrtsibu.

Loanwords

  1. oinan ("harbour"). Only in Saarian Karakat; from Thaaft inaan. Examples: Kóbáltoinan.
  2. tei ("island"). Only in Saarian Karakat, from Haralic tow/tew. Examples: Siher Naputei.
  3. tiks ("city"). Only in Saarian Karakat, from Thaaft tex. Examples: Patsoitiks.

Fáknir

Native

  1. ahki ("home"). Examples: Ahkitáfe, Ahkifánáerw.
  2. akruma ("shrine"). Examples: Ohsakruma.
  3. amak ("bridge"). Examples: Lepoamak, Polsamak.
  4. al ("home"). Examples: Al Atawdad, Alásieman, Al Kapti, Al Puntan, Alhohil, Alkes, Alrá, Aldawi, Aldik, Alsawadi.
  5. ams ("Eelgledist temple"). Examples: Horiams.
  6. atk ("marsh"). Examples: Ahwerwatk.
  7. á ("creek"). Examples: , Desketá, Ámork, Áerad, Áfá.
  8. dak, dok ("hill"). Examples: Dakiswerw, Dak, Katardak, Saivddak, Enihidok, Elpadak, Hmidak, Atusádidak.
  9. erad- Fals settlements, in general. Often near borders or in species-diverse regions. Examples: Náerweradhéi, Eradkaiwed, Áerad, Eradpalah.
  10. fá-. Fáknir settlements. Examples: Pfahfá, Tánwfá, Ahkifánáerw, Fákwerim, Áfá.
  11. fos ("place (with)"). Often in combination with landmarks. Examples: Eshifos, Hpátefos, Kaspfos.
  12. fpaw ("mountain lake"). Examples: Fpaw Nora, Fpaftiho, Fpawafh.
  13. hal ("acre"). Also garden, or any agricultural land. Examples: Halanamhu, Halnaiwerw.
  14. nahsoh, nahsa ("peninsula"). Examples: Nahsaknám, Nahsoh Amrtie.
  15. héi ("colony"). Examples: Náerweradhéi, Héihakutáp.
  16. hirh ("fort"). Examples: Palhirh, Táwrwhirh, Áfhirh.
  17. . Found in Fáknir settlements that are or were previously surrounded by non-Fáknirs. Examples: Lejehó, Kehó.
  18. hósnár, husnur ("mountain"). Examples: Katahósnár, Tarwhósnár, Husnureihsotor.
  19. hpát- Boorian and Ellsic settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Hpátefos, Huwhpát, Suhpát.
  20. hsá ("farm", "hillock"). Examples: Hsápari.
  21. hsof ("place", "settlement"). Examples: Hsofhrok.
  22. huw ("basin", "depression"). Examples: Huwhpát.
  23. hwas ("inn"). Examples: Hwastáwiherw.
  24. hworh ("foreigner", "foe"). Especially in recently colonised regions. Examples: Korhworh, Palahworh.
  25. iwke ("road"). Examples: Iwke Oliw, Iwke Suwfu, Iwketópe.
  26. jap ("well"). Often in the north and north-west, in the names of settlements built around caravanserai. Examples: Japiswerw, Japápad.
  27. jew ("trail", "road"). Examples: Jewehon.
  28. katar-. These can be originally Aktari settlements, or settlements at or near the Katar river. Examples: Katardak, Katardak, Makatar.
  29. káf, ("camp"). Examples: Kádike, Káftowu, Kufuknhiferw.
  30. kerf ("earth", "ground"). Examples: Kerfempi.
  31. kiku ("dune"). Common in the north-western Fáknir Republic. Examples: Kikustoif.
  32. kisi-. Kav settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Kisitokor.
  33. kitá ("land"). Examples: Kitátiho.
  34. kiuri-. Kiorian settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Kiurihrw, Kiurihsot.
  35. kuro ("flooding", "floodplain"). Especially in the Katar basin. Examples: Kurostois.
  36. knám ("harbour"). Examples: Nahsaknám, Tirknám, Náparknám.
  37. ksiem ("trail"). Examples: Hilksiem, Korksiem, Maiksiem.
  38. kwerim ("courthouse"). Examples: Fákwerim, Kwermojtop.
  39. laid ("settlement"). Examples: Wotilaid, Ufolaid.
  40. lais ("river mouth"). Examples: Laisesnefsini, Kelais.
  41. loh ("sand"). Usually in desert settlements. Examples: Loharáh.
  42. mapt ("tree"). Examples: Mapteihpáfas, Mehsmapt, Maptantet.
  43. mád ("gate"). Examples: Fekmád.
  44. misot ("shop"). Or markets, by extension. Examples: Fátmisot, Wosmisot.
  45. mofr ("swamp"). Examples: Mofrarho, Mofrsemeterw.
  46. muf ("pot"). A name given to flat-topped hills and associated settlements. Examples: Woluómuf, Mufhrw.
  47. must ("market"). Examples: Ukutinsimust, Ifarmust.
  48. nád ("house"; cf. Ellsic notu, Finnic naui, Termian naudi). Examples: Nádi, Nádtópe, Nádhtónsh.
  49. ner ("tower"). Examples: Enner, Nerhrók.
  50. nuar ("coast", "shore"). Of a lake or sea. Examples: Nuarpalah.
  51. tehrw ("shore"). Of a river. Examples: Tehrwtotíf, Tehrudehd.
  52. onh ("hall", "council"). Examples: Onhfuawte, Onhsiwu.
  53. otí ("military inn"). Settlements built around large privately owned sleeping and eating establishments adjacent to early Fáknir Empire military camps, often in border regions. Examples: Otítáwrw, Otweih.
  54. páfas ("acre", "field"). Examples: Wáspáfas, Mapteihpáfas.
  55. pfah ("gate"). Examples: Pfahfá.
  56. pfát ("forest"). Examples: Pfátkemerw, Pfátahwerw.
  57. pka ("grove", "orchard"). General. Examples: Sotorpka, Wospka.
  58. pols ("river"). Examples: Polsespák, Polsamak.
  59. ruw ("city"; cf. Finnic ruiu). Examples: Aljáruw, Poroteruw, Ruweswál, Áfhruw, Hlatruw, Hiriniruw.
  60. saiwd-. As settlements. Examples: Saiwddak, Saiwdesk.
  61. sárw ("outlook", "watchtower"). Often found in the names of fortified settlements with a tall watchtower, typical of Fáknir settlements in the Katar basin, and around Lake Tiir, where it is used to imply lighthouses. Examples: Sárwhatieswi, Sárwfail.
  62. sip ("highland"). Examples: Anasip, Ursip.
  63. tali ("service"). This can be found in far western villages with terror-bird stables and maintenance services, often seen in places where jap would also apply. Examples: Katatali, Hentali.
  64. tánw ("village"). Examples: Tánwlepo, Tátitánw, Tánwfá, Ifartánw, Riktánw, Sotortánw.
  65. táw ("field"). Examples: Táwesherst.
  66. te ("water"). Examples: Esfráhte, Hifte, Wehte, Tehwu.
  67. tíd ("dam"). Examples: Tídsu, Tídkonola.
  68. tulu ("river bank"). Examples: Tulusohó.
  69. ufo-. Human settlements, or settlements that originally were. Examples: Ufolaid.
  70. usu ("ford"). Examples: Surotusu.
  71. wenerw, náerw ("new"). Wenerw is typically found in older placenames, since the word has been supplanted by náerw in common parlance. Examples: Wenerwati, Ahkifánáerw, Náerwfos.
  72. wete ("grove", "orchard"). Specifically of fruit trees. Examples: Wetefrói, Wetepilíi.
  73. wes ("wood"). Examples: Weseswál.
  74. wkatid ("new settlement"). Examples: Pihowkatid, Wkatid Árawie.

Loanwords

  1. fur ("valley"). From Thaaft flor. Examples: Kohifur.
  2. sek ("island"). Ultimately possibly from an Aktari language *taɣ, compare Thaaft dau. Examples: Seksalkas
  3. tásar ("mountain"). From Thaaft taser. Examples: Titaplatásar.
  1. Translations into Karakat languages are ordered Akiaian first, Arvian second, and Saarian third, unless mentioned otherwise.