Danshalic languages

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Danshalic
Geographic
distribution:
Draconic Islands
Linguistic classification:One of Sahar's primary language families
Proto-language:Proto-Danshalic
CWS code

The Danshalic languages form a top-level language family in Nagu, specifically the Draconic Islands. Some of its most notable members are Danshali and Cheli.

Proto-Danshalic


Descendants

Danshali

Cheli

Other Languages and dialects in Danshapu and Chel Gyu

Typology

Structural characteristics generally said to be typical of Danshalic languages include:

Grammar

  • extensive set of Noun Classes
  • no marked plural
  • adjectival verbs ("to be big", rather than just "big")
  • use of postpositions as opposed to prepositions.

Phonology

  • Small vowel inventories, with the 5 vowels system being very common
  • Palatal consonants
  • Root final stress

Lexicography

Basic vocabulary of about 200 words, including body parts (e.g. eye, heart, head, mouth), animals (e.g. ocelot, fish), nature objects (e.g. tree, stone, nest, water), basic verbs (e.g. live, fall, run, make, see, suck, go, die, swim, know), basic pronouns (e.g. what, we, you, I), numerals; derivatives increase the number of common words.

Selected cognates

The following is a very brief selection of cognates in basic vocabulary across the Danshalic family, which may serve to give an idea of the sound changes involved. Words in parenthesis next to the proto-word indicate the Proto-Danshalic classifier

English Proto-Danshalic Danshali Cheli
'fire' mʔulo (mʔu) melame mole nà
'water' ti (wi) towo jù ǔ
'earth' ɹuhɯ (pə) refpu çohò çǔ
'fish' utɯ (wi) etwo ósò ǔ
'animal' zuɾ (ŋʔo) zerqa çor ná
'leg, foot' pika (ɢu) poghuge vuci shǐ
'tree' hi (sə) kosu ku ve
'moon' ŋʔam (ʃʔu) qumshe ngím shì
'to go' ɯpok vak- òvec
'to speak' duʔeu deye- johǎ
'to thank' ɢosdɯ gath- eshò

Orthographical notes: The graphemes c and ç are used for the palatal consonants [c] and [ɟ], respectively. The diagraph lh is used for the palata lateral approximant [ʎ], and nh for the palatal nasal [ɲ].