Jutean derivation

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Jutean derivation is mostly based on affixes and compounding.

Derivation of nouns and verbs

General derivation of verbs

-o Generic verb suffix.

Known synonymous suffixes: -ho (sometimes after vowels)

saa 'wave, sea wave' → sao 'to wave, swim'
heme 'food' → hemo 'to eat'

Gender-changing derivations

-a Generic noun suffix for common, physically existing things not related to the wilderness. Derived from the ending of most Common-gender nouns, -a

Known synonymous suffixes: -ha (mostly if the word ends in o)

donosani 'experience' → donosana 'experienced person'
niooni 'dream' → nioona 'picture, illustration'

-i Generic noun suffix for immaterial and/or abstract things, ideas, concepts etc., also used for some generic nouns and for deriving nouns from verbs. Derived from the ending of most Abstract/Immaterial-gender nouns, -i.

Known synonymous suffixes: -hi (particularly used when the word already ends in -i)

nesano 'to know' → nesani 'knowledge, knowing'
vuha 'sun' → vuhi 'light'

-u Generic noun suffix for all wilderness-related things that physically exist, such as things to be found in jungles, oceans or other worlds, sometimes also outer space. Also has a few metaphorical uses. Derived from the ending of most Wilderness-gender nouns, -u

Known synonymous suffixes: none known

dova 'tree' → dovu 'jungle tree'
saini 'mind, person, people' → sainu 'instinct, subconscious'

Changes in size or mightiness

-at General augmentative suffix, mostly quantitative. Derived from haadat, "biggestness"

Known synonymous suffixes: -aha, -haa, -haad, -ahad

saanu 'sea' → saanuahad 'ocean, ocean surface'
seda 'pot' → sedaat 'cauldron'

-it Qualitative augmentative suffix, used when something exceeds something else in a defining quality, for example "magnifying glass" → "microscope". Derived from combining -at with -i.

Known synonymous suffixes: -at (rarely)

vunojahivo 'magnifying glass' → vujahivit 'microscope'
dooni 'time' → doonat 'special occasion, celebration'

-fi General diminutive suffix. From 'ifi' (a bit, slightly, little by little).

Known synonymous suffixes: -fe (when used with adverbs), -ihame (for persons, rare, no longer productive), -ila/-ilu/-ili (gendered variants, rare, no longer productive)

dooni 'time' → doonifi 'moment'
favefa 'meal, dish' → favefafi 'snack'


-ivo General instrumental suffix, for things that are needed or very useful for something. Probably related to vo 'use'

Example: hotio 'to write, be written' → hotivo 'pen, quill, writing implement'

vaili- -a Tool or machine derivation prefix, used for tools or machines that, rather than making a job easier, complete it for the most part themselves, like soap vs. washing machine.

to 'to go' → vailita 'vehicle'

Resultatives and causatives

-efa 'Resultative' derivation suffix, used to derive results from dynamic verbs. Assumed to be related to the causative 'trigger' vo, possibly in combination with a 'of, about, by'

Known synonymous affixes: -eefa

favo 'to cook' → favefa 'meal, dish'
to 'to go' → tefa 'destination'
vano 'to burn' → vaneefa 'ash, residue from fire'

-vo Causative verb derivation suffix, similar in function to the causative 'trigger' and identical with the form it has. Used especially with unergative verbs that don't allow it being used

Known synonymous affixes: -fo, -efo, possibly in analogy with the suffix -efa

to 'to go' → tovo 'to send, bring in'
vuhi 'light' → vuhefo 'to lighten, turn on the light'

-vi Causator noun derivation suffix, to describe the originator or the thing or being causing the existence of a thing, a state of being, or an action.

ami 'job, work' → amivi 'energy'


-eeo Suffix used to derive a verb denoting the ability of something or someone to do something From eeo 'generally be able to do'.

tiso 'to burn' → tiseeo 'be burnable'

-eea Suffix used to derive noun referring to something or someone with a particular ability. From the -eeo suffix (see above) with the -a common noun suffix added, and can therefore be formed directly from a stem or from a derivation using -eeo or -eei (see below)

tiso to burn ( → tiseeo 'be burnable') → tiseea 'burnable objects, firewood'

-eei Suffix used to derive noun denoting the ability to do something. From the -eeo suffix (see above) with the -i immaterial/abstract noun suffix added, and can therefore be formed directly from a stem or from a derivation using -eeo or -eea (see above)

tiso to burn ( → tiseeo 'be burnable') → tiseei 'burnability'


-na Endonym/Exonym derivation suffix, used to derive nouns referring to groups of people, mostly ethnicities or populations of a nation/state. Etymologically most likely related to no (to live, be).

Known synonymous affixes: -ana (after consonants)

Jute 'Jute' → Jutena 'Jutean, Juteans'

-ni Derivation suffix for (adjectival) nouns describing a relationship to a particular ethnicity or other group of people (e.g. American), from -na + i

Known synonymous affixes: -ani (after consonants)

Jute 'Jute' → Juteni 'Jutean'

-ehi Suffix for the derivation of a person sharing a trait/profession/etc. with another one, that is 'a fellow X'. Derived from ehe (too, like, likewise etc.)

Known synonymous affixes: -hehi (after vowels)

ama 'worker' → amahehi 'fellow worker, colleague'

-afa Noun derivation suffix for things or places owned or done collectively, probably from a (of, by) and fa (inclusive collective first person pronoun)

Known synonymous affixes: -fa (after words already ending in -f, particularly -af)

mihonon 'house' → mihonafa 'community hall'
vettaf 'fight, conflict' → vettaffa 'war'

-mo Agentive derivation suffix used for referring to professions, (more) permanent states or occupations or jobs. Can be used on both nouns and verbs. Originally from amo (to do, work).

Known derivation suffixes: -amo (after consonants) -Ø (when the original word already ends in -mo)

noitosani 'teaching' → noitosanimo 'teacher'

mo- -he Temporary agentive derivation circumfix, for momentary or transitional states, acts etc. Can also be used both on verbs and nouns. Probably originating by prefixing the aforementioned, more permanent agentive suffix mo and suffixing he

letafo 'to travel' → moletafohe 'traveller, tourist'

-ona The 'patientive' derivation suffix, similar to English '-ee' as in 'employee'. Originally consisted of the combination of -o (verb suffix) + no (patientive trigger suffix) + a (common noun suffix)

Example: hotuvi 'oppression, suppression' → hotuvona 'the oppressed, the subjugated'


ilna- Derivation prefix equivalent to "-lessness". From ilni a ('absence or lack of').

Known synonymous affixes: -l/-al (the general negation suffix, used for verbs or nouns), -i (when deriving from stative verbs having a similar negating meaning), il- (opposite prefix)

diaadif 'love' → ilnadiaadif 'lovelessness'
van 'danger, fire, wildness' → vanal 'harmlessness'
netilo 'be boundless' (from neti, here 'boundary, limit') → netili 'limitlessness, boundlessness'
lumo here: 'power' → illumo 'powerlessness'

-evo Derivation prefix referring to something that is obtained from a natural resource Shortened form of evoto (to get, receive, obtain etc.)

Known synonymous affixes: -eva (for ores), -heva (for ores, after words ending in a vowel)

dova 'tree, wood' → dovevo 'lumber'
tusa 'silver' → tusaheva 'silver ore, natural silver alloy'

-tilo Verb derivation suffix, used to signify the repetition of an action.

amo 'to do, work' → amotilo 'do again, repeat, habitually do'
memo here 'to say, be said' → memotilo 'repeat, be repeated'

-ilvu A derivation suffix used to form words referring to the end of something. Originates in the word ilvuni (end).

kiovi 'part' → kiovilvu 'end part, e.g. of a device'
vuhat 'holiday' → vuhatilvu 'last day or end of a/the holiday(s)'

dona- Prefix used to derive words referring to a period of time. From doona 'time'.

Known synonymous affixes: don- (in front of vowels)

Examples: heiti
'dullness' → donaheiti 'boredom, time of boredom'
fefeo 'to rain' → donafefe 'rainy season'

Derivation of adverbs

-e Generic adverb suffix, sometimes used for adpositions or conjunctions as well.

tavani 'truth' → tavane 'truthfully'