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Other namesHàkmandeok, sun sickness

Kmandeok (Mañi: hàkmąndeok [hàkmɑ̃́ndéok], Hlung: jakwanehok [xæ̘kʷæ̘ne̘ʔo̘k], Ndxiixun: quą¹nde¹ó² [kʷʌ̃́ⁿdéoˀ], Nichoh: cuą́ndéo, Awatese: kąndeko) or sun sickness is a category in premodern Mañic culture.


Kmandeok is believed to result from the gestating parent spending too much time in the sun. As a result, pregnant mothers and ząm in traditional Mañic cultures are advised to spend most of their time indoors and only go outside when it is dark.

Signs and symptoms

TBD I really just want to finish the rest of this article for now

Social role

Traditionally, kmandeok people received a limited education and were only expected to do simple and menial work. Depending on the severity of the disability, they may not have received any education or been expected to work at all. Generally, they were allowed to roam the village without supervision, with nondisabled adults either putting them to simple work or chasing them away with brooms or other tools if they began to interfere with work. While they were not overtly neglected, they often received scraps or were not fed well, and often slept on the floor or other non-bed areas of their family's house.

Often, kmandeok people of high intelligence whose intelligence was underestimated by the people around them would occupy their time observing nature or tinkering. Many inventors and naturalists in Mañi history have been aided by local kmandeok, and several kmandeok have even become noted naturalists or inventors themselves, such as the geologist Rra³ Zį²ʼą¹zą² Hé³xi² Ñą¹³mba³ Ru³ and the hydroengineer Lułiŋ Ŋụlẹlị Liyihi.

Scientific viewpoint

Modern science-based medicine views kmandeok as a constellation of related developmental disabilities, including autism, intellectual disability, Tourette syndrome, and ADHD. (TBD: are any of these even real categories in modern Sahar psychiatry?) These disabilities are not caused by sun exposure during pregnancy, but by a complex variety of genetic and other environmental factors, including but not limited to parental age, psychotropic medication use during pregnancy, and socioeconomic deprivation.

Modern day

In rural areas of Mañic nations such as Quaxin Xun, Zaizung, Awating, and Manea, people with developmental disabilities are often still considered kmandeok. However, in urban areas where scientific and international forms of medicine and psychiatry flourish, these people are usually diagnosed as having an intellectual or neurodevelopmental disability, and often receive psychiatric treatment. In some cases, as settlements urbanize and scientific medicine makes inroads into the countryside, kmandeok adults are being given psychiatric diagnoses and put into day programs, adult education, or employment training, with mixed results.

See also