List of language families

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This set of lists of language families also includes language isolates, unclassified languages, extinct language groups, and signed languages.

Language families

In the following chart, each row is a recognized language family, with data on how many languages belong to each family, which regions they are primarily spoken in and by how many people as a first language. Note that only extant languages are counted, no extinct ones. Thus, a family can have one language if the other languages have gone extinct.

Family name Languages Current speakers Location Proposed parent family
Alpic languages Alpa
Amaian languages 10 35,000,000 Vaniua, Parshita Amaian-Voontic languages
Argeyazic languages 2 175,000,000 Ekuosia
Asuranesian languages 10 Asuranesia, Nagu
Atruozan languages South Baredina, Ystel Ystelo-Atruozan languages
Baredan languages 4 55,208,000 South Baredina
Bavkir languages 100,000,000 Boroso, Ekuosia
Cathani languages 21 Parshita
Colian languages 5 26,000,000 Soltenna
Darkinic languages Soltenna
East-Mirarian languages 50+ 50,000,000+ Mahavia, Parshita, Tlukeria
Ekuo-Lahiri languages 15 350,000,000 Ekuosia, Puzimm, Lahan
Hedretic languages 6 East Miraria, Parshita Plateau languages
Jö-Ku languages 4 Parshita
Kame languages Parshita
Kencha languages 2 2,000 Puzimm
Kiorian languages 2 12,000 Boroso Upper Borosan languages
Konaaczinh languages 2 Boroso
Kõ languages Ekuosia
Letsic languages 8 400,000,000 Ekuosia
Maakpauean languages 5 8,500,000 North Miraria
Macro-Daleic Ekuosia
Maedim languages 4 Puzimm
Methic languages Soltenna
Mherdic languages 12 250,000,000 Boroso
Ngerupic languages 100 300,000,000 Akulanen, Soltenna, Ekuosia
Ngeyvic languages 4 680,000 West Miraria
Ngutanic languages 1 23,000,000 Boroso
Nuhay-Setyalnian languages 3 Boroso Upper Borosan languages
Õlukalic languages 7 Parshita
Otjesi-Lonish languages 21 58,000,000 Ekuosia
Pagaks languages Parshita
Palawan languages Ekuosia
Paroan languages 4 Parshita
Qonklese languages 5 200,000,000 Soltenna Proto-Soltennan
Quatic languages Northwest Miraria
Rartakan languages 27 Parshita
Rietic languages Soltenna
Saru-Asuran languages Lahan, Asuranesia
Shaelic languages 11+ 74,000,000+ Parshita, Tlukeria
Sitr languages Soltenna Sitr-Yenan languages
Taantic languages 1 30,000,000 Boroso Upper Borosan languages
Theweric languages 3 100,000,000 Boroso
Tiengic languages 1 Parshita
Lhochan languages 3 2,400,000 Yakormonyo
Vaniuan languages 20 502,000,000 Vaniua
Varkanic languages Draconic Sea Islands
Voontic languages 2 11,000 Vaniua Amaian-Voontic languages
Xhovian languages 8 230,000,000 South Baredina
Yaharan languages 3 Boroso
Yennodorian languages 5 Boroso
Yenan languages Soltenna Sitr-Yenan languages
Yisi languages 3 Puzimm
Ystellic languages Ystel Ystelo-Atruozan languages

Language isolates

Language isolates are languages which are not part of any known family and they can be alternatively described as being its sole representative.

Baredina

Boroso

Miraria

Nagu

Unclassified languages

Languages are considered unclassified either because, for one reason or another, little effort has been made to compare them with other languages or more commonly, because they are too poorly documented to permit reliable classification: most such languages are extinct and, most likely, will never be known well enough to classify.

Miraria

Extinct families and unclassified languages

This section lists extinct languages and families which have no known living relatives; while a minority of these is well known but still classified as genetically independent, the lack of attestation makes many of these hard to put into larger groups.

Name Languages Year of death Location Well-attested? Proposed parent family
Chikishon languages 2 5th century CE Central Magali Yes Ngerupic languages (not commonly accepted)
Halarian language 1 5th century BCE Azerin, Barradiwa Yes Ekuo-Lahiri languages

Creoles and mixed languages

Termic creoles

Shohuanese creoles

Sign languages

The family relationships of sign languages are not well established due to a lag in linguistic research, and many are isolates. Some established sign language families include:

Sign language isolates include: