Manean language

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Language family
  • Manean
Early forms:
Wa Ñi
  • Mañi
    • Proto-Awato-Manean
      • Manean
        • Manean
CWS code

Manean is the official language of Manea and is spoken alongside other languages of Manea.


Manean is a Ngerupic language which is descended from Mañi. It is closely related to Awatese.


Phonology and Orthography

Manean is characterized by a strange phonology for a Ngerupic language.



Labial Coronal Palatal Velar
Nasal m ⟨m⟩ n ⟨n⟩ ŋ ⟨ng⟩
Plosive t ⟨t⟩ k ⟨k⟩
Voiceless Continuant ɸ ⟨f⟩ ʃ ⟨x⟩ h ⟨h⟩
Voiced Continuant β ⟨v⟩ ð ⟨d⟩
Approximant l ⟨l⟩ j ⟨y⟩
Rhotic r ⟨r⟩


Front Back
Close i ⟨i⟩ u ⟨u⟩
Mid e ⟨e⟩ o ⟨o⟩
Open æ ⟨a⟩ a ⟨ą⟩


Morphology and syntax



Numerals in Manean are complex, each having three forms differing in usage. These usages vary considerable among speakers, but the most common usages are enumerated below.

  1. The first numeral form is the native numeral, inherited from Mañi. These numerals are most often used in formal context, in general counting, and frequently to count people. The are used for calendar and time puposes as well as in names
  2. The second numeral form is the substrate numeral, also inherited from Mañi but from substrate origins. These numerals are often used to count animate (non-human) objects, long/thin items, and inaminate objects, informally..
  3. The third numeral form is the Ounyu numeral, borrowed from Vayama. These numerals are used to count maritime objects and islands of varying animacy and in contexts of non-high formality.
Native Substrate Ounyu
1 mvi kay me
2 ra tay
3 li va li
4 e tąmfe ąkume
5 den mekuy tąn
6 ngonem tenav tąme
7 ngonera kuyav tąną
8 ngoneli fata tąni
9 ngokung xutakay ngąkume
10 deądą mexąn tąngą
100 ngorva ngąlvą ngąlvą
1000 ngovade lvąlą lvąlą

Manean uses a base-10 numeral system. Multiples of each power of ten are indicated by a preceding factor (e.g. li deądą – 'three ten' – means 'thirty'). Higher powers of ten precede lower powers (e.g. ngokung ngovade ngokung ngorva ngokung deądą ngokung – 'nine thousand nine hundred nine ten nine' – means '9999').

Manean also has a class of word to express large numbers. These words are loaned from Vosan, and therefore have only one form. The base stem for these forms is xenitą meaning one million (10⁶). For each multiple power of six an additional xe- is added (e.g. xexenitą meaning one trillion (1012 or 106+6). From these forms, the prefix xen- can be added for an multiple power of three (e.g. xenxexenitą meaning quadrillion (1015 or 106+6+3). Numerals 1 through 999 may be place before these forms, modifying their value in a multiplicative manner. The above patterns are described in the following table.

Large Numbers in Manean (native forms used were applicable)
Manean English Power of Ten
ngovade thousand 103
deądą ngovade ten thousand 104
ngorva ngovade hundred thousand 105
xenitą million 106
deądą xenitą ten million 107
ngorva xenitą hundred million 108
xenxenitą billion 109
deądą xenxenitą ten billion 1010
ngorva xenxenitą hundred billion 1011
xexenitą trillion 1012
xenxexenitą quadrillion 1015
xexexenitą pentillion 1018
xenxexexenitą sextillion 1021
xexexexenitą septillion 1024
xenxexexexenitą octillion 1027
xexexexexenitą nonillion 1030
xenxexexexexenitą decillion 1033

Also from Vosan is veni meaning 'zero.'

Writing and literature

See also