Monyo

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Monyo
Mĕofat
Pronunciation /mɔnjɔɸätɔ/
Ethnicity Monyos
Native speakers 1,500,000 (estimate)  (no date)
Language family
  • Monyo
Early forms:
Old Monyo
  • Proto-Monyo
    • Proto-Lhochan
      • Monyo
Dialects Samejinon
Writing system Monyo Script
Official status
Official language in Yakormonyo
CWS code EKM

Monyo is spoken as a native language throughout northern Yakormonyo. It has a very interesting writing system, where all letters are considered vowels. It is an analytical language, with a short, 'staccato'-like sound. It has one retroflex letter, which appears in the forms koL or xeL.

Classification

History

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m (m) n (n) ń (ŋ)
Plosive p (p) t (t~ɾ) k (k)
Fricative f (ɸ), v (β) s (s), z (z) ş (ʃ), j (ʒ), x (ç)[1], y (ʝ)[2] x (x), y (ɣ)
Approximant ŭ (w) l (ɻ)[3] ĕ (j)
Flap r (ɾ)
  1. When before ɪ or ʊ̈
  2. When before ɪ or ʊ̈
  3. Only seen in forms 'koL' and 'xeL'

Vowels

Frontal Central Back
Close e (ɪ~e) i (y~ɵ~ə) u (u~ʊ)
Open a (ä) o (o~ɔ)

Phonotactics

Orthography

The Complete Monyo Alphabet in the official computer font.

Monyo uses a very strange abugida-like alphabet, which is surprisingly derived from Dulic. Most Monyos considering their script to be purely vowelic, where all letters are vowels. The vowels are then separated into true vowels and false vowels. The true vowels are the letters that are truly vowels. With the exceptions of e and u, these vowels stay vowels no matter where they are in a word. The false vowels are consonants with an inherent vowel (usually <e> or <o>). Before, the script was a purely phonetic one, but it slowly became semisyllabic (except in Vomen). Other syllables are made by affixing a true vowel, which replaces the syllable's inherent vowel with another one. But if <e> or <u> is followed by another true vowel, it becomes /j/ or /w/ respectively, and is treated like a false vowel, so even if another false vowel precedes it, the false vowel doesn't connect to the true vowels; it stays a syllable. A good example of this is the word <meo>, land, which is pronounced /mɔnjɔ/. Of course, there are some irregulars, like the nasal-plosive irregular (Nɔnk -> ŋk) and the diminutive irregular (çɪɻwä -> xwä).

Grammar

Morphology

Syntax

Monyo has a strict word order in the following order: Subject-Direct Object-Verb/Adjective-Indirect Object-Modifiers, however interrogative sentences move to the end the answer needed (example, if someone asks your name, the object (name) will be moved to the end of the sentence).

In order to indicate these parts of the sentence, particles are used. Different moods also used to change the particles. The table below was the former particle table. The (italicized and parenthesized) particles are no longer used since the year 2000.

Declarative Interrogative Imperative Propositive
Indefinite Subject je (ja) je je
Definite Subject ze (za) ze ze
Indefinite Direct Object şe (aşe) şe (oşe)
Definite Direct Object se (ase) se (ose)
Verbal Predicate aje (aja) akor aje
Adjective Predicate ajeso ajeso akorso (ajete)
Indirect Object mon (ma) mon (mo)
Modifiers ńon ńon ńon ńon