|This article or section is out of date. The country/countries relevant to this article have been removed from Sahar and have been retconned. Everything here can be considered non-canonical. |
|Republic of Ngutan
Wuo^ Jutaâneâha (Ngutanese)
"Jaiwo se Jutaâneâha!"
“Ngaiwo se Ngutānēha!”
“The Shout of Ngutan”
Location of Ngutan in Sahar
|Largest city||Nāusayo (Naâusayo)|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential parliamentary republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Ning Misato|
222,198.53 sq mi
|Time zone||Ngutan Time (SCT -4) (SCT-4)|
|Date format||dd-mm-yyyy CE|
|Drives on the||right|
Ngutan (Ngutanese: Jutaâneâha, tr. Ngutānēha, IPA: [ŋu.taː'neː.hã]), officially the Republic of Ngutan (Ngutanese: Wuo^ Jutaâneâha, tr. Wuō Ngutānēha, IPA: [wu'oː ŋu.taː'neː.hã]), is a country located in the southern region of Upper Boroso, bordering the Asura Ocean to the west. At 575,491 km2 (222,198 sq. mi), Ngutan is the ??th largest country in the world by area.
Ngutan has a population of around 23 million, with 1 million of those being located in the capital, Nāwongu, and 4 million being located in the largest city, Nāusayo, which used to be the previous capital of Ngutan before it was moved to Nāwongu in the 1992 geopolitical reform of Ngutan. Ngutan is fairly homogeneous, with 97% of the population being Ngutanese native and speaking the Ngutanese language, which is also Ngutan’s national language.
Ngutan’s territory comprises of mostly grassland, with a large desert being located in the country’s northern region. The southern region is filled with lakes of varying sizes, and the land near them has been settled by humans for millennia, due to their location nearby an obvious source of water. Because of that, the area of the lakes has been warred by multiple Ngutanese tribes and kingdoms for a very long time.
The Ngutanese people were partly hunter-gatherer and partly agricultural, living in and around the modern territory of Ngutan, specially the Lakes area, with a multitude of tribes located on the floodplains of rivers.
At around 700 BCE, the tribes began organizing themselves into onāyasamās, roughly meaning “two-chiefdom”, in which a chiefdom is managed by both the eldest man and the eldest woman in the tribe at the time. This form of goverment is strongly linked to Warisuist practices of a “two-shaman”. In this era, numerous onāyasamās formed, and many merged and split up due to rivalry and warfare over resources; at one point, records say more than two thousand onāyasamās existed, distributed all over the territory of modern Ngutan, but mostly in the south and southeast.
One specific rivalry was between the onāyasamās located within the Lakes area versus the ones located within the Peninsular area, which gave way to the Kingdoms era, as the onāyasamās merged to become stronger.
In the first century CE, the numerous onāyasamās were getting unstable due to the rivalries between all the onāyasamās. Three diarchies were created by the merging of onāyasamās: the Kingdom of Sayaisa, located in the Ngutanese Peninsula; the Kingdom of Kōyan, located in the Ngutanese Lakes area; and the Kingdom of Yunaipoa, in the Keoyun Yunaipoa island. In this process, the monarch lineage system was changed from the eldest members of the diarchy to primogeniture, in which one monarch was male and the other was female.
These diarchies follow the same principle of government of the onāyasamās, with two people holding the title of monarch, and governing jointly. However, the diarchies became more politically organised, and an Assembly of the People was installed in each diarchy, in which any inhabitant of the diarchy could vote on acts which would either be accepted and executed by the monarchs, or denied by the monarchs. This is the foundation of the original Ngutanese democracy.
Circa 490 CE, the kingdoms were being destabilized by continuous attacks by nomad tribes from the north of Ngutan, due to a larger pool of resources located within the kingdoms. The monarchs used this as a guise to consolidate more power onto themselves and leaving very little to the Assemblies of the People, who essentially acted symbolically by this point. In this process, the Kingdom of Kōyan was thrown into a civil war, that decimated the kingdom enough for it to be dissolved and many small city-states were left in its wake. Fearing the same would happen, the Kingdom of Sayaisa started actively attacking nomads and expanding their territory northwards and eastwards, but in the process, the City-state of Ongaipoa successfully retaliated, annexing part of the territory of the Kingdom of Sayaisa and becoming the Kingdom of Ongaipoa.
At this point, the Ngutanese territory was fractured between many warring states. However, the Kingdom of Ongaipoa started consolidating its territory, annexing the entirety of the eastern city-states by 600 CE, pushing out the remainders of the Kingdom of Sayaisa into the a small territory in the extreme south of the Ngutanese Peninsula by 660 CE, and expanding northwards by 720 CE. The Kingdom of Yunaipoa would be annexed also, but their monarchs arranged an agreement with the Kingdom of Ongaipoa, wherein they are free to do as they wish, as long as they allow full access to the waters and lands of the island to Ongaipoa. By this point, the Kingdom of Ongaipoa is now the Empire of Ongaipoa.
Empire of Ongaipoa
The Empire of Ongaipoa enjoyed troubled success, lasting from 720 CE to 1498 CE.In this span of time, in geographical matters, it expanded northwards up until Lake Poksles and Lake Ovyles, displacing or integrating the nomads living in that area. By 990 CE, the Empire controlled all of current Ngutanese territory plus some other area near it. The expansion was greatly slowed by the Upper Borosan Desert, in which not much soil is appropriate for agriculture, except near the Tāsange Lake in northern Ngutan.
At the start, it had nonexistent democratic institutions and the monarchs were absolutist. Despite this, the Empire was distributed into feuds called that had a high, but not unlimited, degree of autonomy. This greatly helped to reduce unrest, but the feuds still paid high taxes for control of the land, that was essentially owned by the Empire; in essence, it worked as a lopsided union of feuds, under control of two emperors, and where they couldn’t elect those emperors. Some of the feuds were directly controlled by the Empire, specially where land had good soil, specially in the then-Kingdom of Ongaipoa, and revenue went directly into the Empire’s coffers, but that didn’t meant the money would be reinvested into that same land in equal volume. This angered the folk within those feuds, and it caused the Spring Uprising in October of 1304 CE in the territory of then-Kingdom of Ongaipoa, in which peasants actually successfully seceded from the Empire, clamoring for governmental reform. In the process, the secessionists murdered half of the monarchy and the emperors, who were living in Ongaipoa at the time, causing the remainders of the Empire still contained many royal members who claimed the thrones, and civil wars between the feuds sprang up. This was not, in fact, the objective of the secessionists, as they only wanted to show dissatisfaction with the government, but not cause civil wars, and they expressed “discontent” with the occurrences. Even then, they did not care much for it, and just governed the Ongaipoa region, now using the previous Ngutanese democratic ideals.
After the end of the civil wars in 1322 CE, the Empire was controlled by royalty based on what is now the city of Wahūa Sao, who moved the capital to there, and started negotiating the re-annexation of Ongaipoa. The Ongaipoans claimed that, for the re-annexation to happen, the Empire would need to become a Ngutanese democracy like theirs. Since the royalty realised the high strategic value of the Ongaipoa region, they accepted that, and Ongaipoa was re-annexed by 1344 CE. In effect, the democracy was flawed: the royalty frequently defrauded the voting process, making it so only Wahūa Saoan monarchs would be elected. Even though many of the voters knew that their votes were not worth anything, this flawed democracy lasted for more than a hundred years more (until 1494 CE), mainly because the Wahūa Saoan monarchy was rather benevolent, and often worked for the people first, rather than last, like the monarchies of the past.
Fall of the Empire
In 1494 CE, a very rough drought hit in early spring, and continued for twelve more months. The Great Drought of 1494 was one of the hardest droughts the Empire had ever endured, and this caused enormous instability due to the lack of food and water, prompting mass migrations out of the Ngutanese Peninsula, with a large amount of people dying of dysentery and other illnesses. The effects of this caused the fall of the Empire of Ongaipoa, just three years later, with the Empire becoming the Kingdom of Ngutan.
At 575,491.52 square kilometres (222,198.52 sq mi), Ngutan is the world’s ??th largest country and Boroso’s ??th largest country. The territory of Ngutan is mostly included in the Ngutanese Peninsula and a few islands in the Asura Ocean. It lies between latitudes 35°S and 22°S, and longitudes 72°W and 61°W.
Ngutanese’s geology is quite varied. Most of the country sits atop the Ngutanese Plateau, ranging from 500 meters to 1500 meters high, with most of the mountains located in the south-central area of the peninsula or in the extreme north at the border with Mekaneli. The eastern part of the country is an exception to that; it is not on top of the plateau, but instead is filled with lakes, including the major Lake Aipoa, clocking in at 18,088.65 km2 of area. The north and northwestern part of the country are composed of flat or rolling hills with rocky formations.
Ngutan has a somewhat varied climate, that can be subdivided into three zones:
- The cold desert climate (BWk), predominant in the northern, northwestern and central areas, where the Ngutanese Desert is located. It is characterised by hot, dry summers and cold, dry winters. This area has a lot less people compared to the wetter areas.
- The cold semi-arid climate (BSk), covering a band in the central area of the country serving as a divide between the desert and the wetter areas. It is characterized by warm, dry summers and cold, wet winters, with exceptional wetness in spring and autumn.
- The warm-summer mediterranean climate (CSb), predominant in the south and southeast of the country. It is characterized by warm (but not hot), dry summers, with wet, cold winters. Most people live in this area.
There is also a thin area of hot desert climate (BWh) in the extreme north of the country almost at the border with Mekaneli, but in most cases that area can be ignored due to its small size and that there are very few people living there.
Ngutan is a consitutional republic with a parliamentary system of government, where the President of Ngutan is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Ngutan is the head of government. A President is elected every six years, who then appoints a Prime Minister. The katīne is the legislative body (parliament) of Ngutan, and all of its 300 members are proportionally elected every four years.
Ngutan has an unicameral Parliament, also known as the katīne. It is the only legislative body of the government, and may alter the constitution, enact new ordinary laws, override presidential vetoes, dismiss the cabinet, and so on. The acts of parliament are subject to a judicial review by the Judicial branch of Government, who affirm the constitutionality of enacted laws. The parliament is elected every four years through party-list proportional representation using the D’Hondt method. Ngutan is subdivided into demographically determined electoral constituencies, wherein each constituency elects a minimum of X members of parliament and a maximum of Y members of parliament.
Ngutan is an unitary state composed of municipalities, which are slotted into 7 regions, used only for statistical purposes. Each municipality has a council-manager government, where a council is elected by the people and answers only to the people.
Science and technology
Ngutan’s population is 23,019,700 as determined by the 2015 census, with a population density of exactly 40/km² (15.444/sq mi). The distribution of people accross the country is rather unequal, due to climate and historical constraints; most people inhabit the areas of the south and southeast where the climate is more pleasant.
The Ngutanese society is quite homogeneous, composed of 96.3% ethnic Ngutanese, with the remaining being various immigrants from other countries, mainly from Boroso.
Ngutan is a heavily urbanised country, with 79% of its inhabitants living within urban areas.
The official language of Ngutan is Ngutanese, and more than 99% of people speak it as their first language, and not being able to speak Ngutanese is illegal if you are living in Ngutan. Ngutanese is a fusional language with a peculiar morphosyntactic alignment called the Austronesian alignment, which distinguishes the language from any other in Sahar.
Education in Ngutan is a mix of public and private schools, and it is compulsory from the ages five to seventeen.
The vast majority of people follow Warisuism, or no religion at all.