Ohanian language

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Innug̃adim, Innuḫadim, Innug̃atim, Innuḫatim
Era250 BCE - 800 CE; survived as a liturgical language until the 1400s CE
Language family
Early forms:
  • Archaic Ohanian
    • Ohanian
Writing systemOld Ohanian Script
CWS code

Ohanian; Innug̃adim, Innug̃atim, Innuḫadim, Innuḫatim IPA: [innuŋatim, innuŋatʰim, innuxatim, innuxatʰim] is an ancient Vaniuan language of Ohania historically spoken along and around the southern coast of the Melkanchuta Sea. The language originated in what is now southern Khezan and eastern Vosan in western Vaniua. It is the only language in the Ohanian branch, although as a pluricentric language divided into many dialects, it is perhaps more accurately described as a small family of closely related language varieties. The dominance of Ohanian culture under the Mamikian Empire saw the spread of the Ohanian language throughout central and western Vaniua in modern day Khezan, Vosan, and Komania.

During the 6th Century CE, cultural exchange between the Ohanians and Bodnians developed, including widespread language contact. The influence of Ohanian on Bodnian is evident from extensive lexical borrowing, primarily from the former into the latter, although some syntactic and morphological convergence is also evident.

Bodnian gradually replaced Ohanian as a spoken language around 800 CE (although the exact date is subject to debate) but Ohanian continued to be used as a liturgical, literary, and scientific language in Bodnian-speaking states such as x and x until the 14th Century when it was likely fully replaced by Bodnian and largely forgotten.



The Ohanian language is initially recorded in texts by the name Řahahdim or Řahatim (other variants including: Řahaḫdim, Řaʾahdim, Řaʾaḫdim, and Řaʾatim) generally interpreted as meaning 'the first language' or 'the original/native language', and derived from the prefix řa- 'first; ur-; original; native; before' from PV *sʰɛmo 'first' and the noun hahdim 'language; throat' from PV *sostim- 'language; throat'. Later, the language was more commonly recorded as Innug̃adim or Innug̃atim (dialectally: Innuḫadim or Innuḫatim) meaning 'the Ohanian language' or, perhaps more literally, 'the civilised language' from the adjective innug̃ 'civilised' (originally, and still in some uses, 'clothed' from PV *innuŋ- 'clothed', and later taken more broadly as a term for the Ohanians and their culture, in contrast with the daral 'unclothed; barbarian' non-Ohanians from PV *tałal- 'crazy') and the noun hahdim 'language; throat'. The dialectal presence of in this name suggests an older voiceless velar nasal formed from the compounding of *g̃ and *h, indicating that the initial usage of this name must have occurred sometime in the late Proto-Ohanian or early Archaic Ohanian period. It is likely that at this time, the name Innug̃adim was reserved for more formal, high-register language as the term innug̃ itself was used only in such settings prior to the Classical period, before later adopting a more generalised usage with the spread of Ohanian culture under the Mamikian Empire.



Classical Ohanian consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
central lateral first second
Nasals m ⟨m⟩ n ⟨n⟩ ɲ ⟨ñ⟩ ŋ ⟨g̃⟩
Plosives plain p ⟨b⟩ t ⟨d⟩ t͡ʃ~c ⟨ĵ⟩ t͡ɕ~c ⟨ǰ⟩ k ⟨g⟩
aspirated pʰ ⟨p⟩ tʰ ⟨t⟩ t͡ʃʰ~cʰ ⟨ĉ⟩ t͡ɕʰ~cʰ ⟨č⟩ kʰ ⟨k⟩
Fricatives f ⟨f⟩ (s~ç ⟨s⟩) (ɬ ⟨s̠⟩) ʃ ⟨š⟩ x ⟨ḫ⟩ h ⟨h⟩
Affricates unaspirated t͡s ⟨z⟩ (t͡ɬ ⟨ḏ⟩)
aspirated t͡sʰ ⟨ř⟩ t͡ɬʰ ⟨ṯ⟩
Liquids (ɾ ⟨ř⟩) l ⟨l⟩ ʎ ⟨ḻ⟩ ɣ ⟨r⟩
Glides w ⟨w⟩ j ⟨y⟩


To be updated

Front Central Back
Close i ⟨i⟩ u ⟨u⟩
Near-close ɪ~e̝ ⟨i⟩ ʊ~o̝ ⟨u⟩
Mid e̞~ɛ ⟨e⟩ ə~ɐ~a ⟨a⟩
Open æ ⟨e a⟩ ɒ ⟨o a⟩


Morphology and syntax


Writing and literature