Proto-Cananganamese language

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Proto-Cananganamese was an Asuranesian language spoken sometime between 2,500 to 3,000 years ago along the Southern Coast of Nagu and along the western coast of present-day Lhavres. It was first reconstructed in 1948 by TBA, who conducted field studies in Cananganam and in Lhavres. The proto language is generally agreed to have been spoken at the least, a thousand years, before writing was introduced into Cananganam where the first literary evidence of Asuranesian languages come into record in 894.


Dating the Proto-Cananganamese language has been difficult for linguists as Nagu was relatively isolated from the Ancient Literary world with connections to Borosan words only appearing as soon as writing was introduced making dating the exact time period of Proto-Cananganamese difficult. Most linguists agree on a general minimum date for Proto-Cananganamese's existence being between 1,000 BCE to 500 BCE, however, some linguists such as TBA believe it to be somewhere between 2,000 to 3,000 BCE which contradicts with its mother language's dating of existing between 3,500 to 2,500 BCE.



Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Laryngeal
plain emphatic plain emphatic plain emphatic plain emphatic
Nasals *m *n
Stops voiceless *t *k *q
voiced *b *bˤ *d *dˤ *dʒ *dʒˤ
Fricatives voiceless *f *s *x
voiced *ðˤ *z *zˤ
Laterals *l
Lateral Fricatives *ɮˤ
Approximant *j *w *h


Front Central Back
Closed *i *i: *u *u:
Open *a *a:

Correspondences with Proto-Asuranesian

PAS Cananganamese Proto-Littoro-Marianic TBA
Proto-C. Modern C.
*a a ɑ , ɵ , e , ə
ā ɑ , o , e , ɵ , ə
*e i ɵ , ja , ə
ī e , ɵ, ja , ə
*i i i , o , y , ə , ɵ
ī i , o , y , ə , ɵ
*y i y , ɵ
ī y , ɵ
*u u u , ɵ
ū u , ɵ , ū
*o u u , o , ɵ
ū u, o , ɵ
a ə , ɵ , o
*ə́ ā ə , ɵ , o
*n̩ an an , aŋ
*ŋ̍ an an , aŋ
*m̩ am um
*k k k
*kʷ q p , ʍ , ɕ , ∅
*x x x , h
*xʷ χ ū , w , m , v
*s s s
*sʷ ɬ
*z z z
*zʷ ɮ
*t t , dˤ t
*d d , dˤ d , ð , z , t
*g dʒ , dʒˤ g , ɣ , w
ɬ , ɮˤ ʟ
*j j , dʒˤ j
*r l , ʀ o , ɵ , ə , r
*l ð , ðˤ l
*h h , ħ ʔ
*f θ , ðˤ f
*p f , w p
*b b , bˤ b , v
ʔ , a , ∅ q , ʁ , ɑ , ∅
n , dˤ ŋ
*m m , bˤ m
*n n , dˤ n

Note: all references to /r/ are the alveolar approximant, not to be confused with the alveolar trill