Sanmra

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The Nation of Sanmra
Adıfas ni Sanmra
The Sanmra national flag, or something
Flag
Capital
and largest city
Elten
Official languages Tirina
Recognized Dialects Sakaran Tirina · Elten Tirina
Demonym Losanmra
Government Representational democracy led by an elected dictator
 -  Sarda Tien'a ni Edara rıl Losa
 -  First Voters (Lun Nuoda) Talesın · Preli
Legislature House of Voters (Leten ni Nuoda)
Sovereign state
 -  Dalar tribes united by Tirina circa 470 BCE 
Area
 -  236,297 km2
91,235 sq mi
Population
 -  2016 estimate 6,665,423
 -  Density 28.21/km2
73.1/sq mi
Gini0.41
low
HDI 0.79
high
Time zone EBT (SCT-2)
does not participate in DST
Calling code +11
Internet TLD .sn

Sanmra (IPA: /ˈsan.mɾa/), officially the Nation of Sanmra (Adıfas ni Sanmra /ˈa.d̪ɪ.fas ni ˈsan.mɾa/), is a country located on the southern coast of Alpa, on the Dragon Sea. While small compared to many human-dominated nations, Sanmra is the only non-Atsiq nation inhabited primarily by dalar aside from Tuanmali.

Etymology

lol i unno

History

Prehistory

Archaeological and genetic evidence indicates that dalar split from humans approximately 200,000 years ago, migrating north from the birthplace of humanity in Baredina through Miraria to eventually settle in Alpa. At this time, most of the continent was held by dalar, although only nominally in the northernmost regions.

The following dates may or may not be accurate:

Circa 15,000 BCE, humans arrived in Alpa in increasingly large numbers. Based on genetic evidence, there was a population bottleneck around 10,000 BCE followed by a small influx of human genes; while there is little direct evidence (despite repeated attempts at creative interpretation of cave art and pottery), it is most likely that this was a result of warfare with humans, which devastated the always limited dalar population, whose population growth rate could not compete with that of humans.

Unification

Due to a lack of written records from either humans or dalar during the following time period, specifics are unclear, but archaeological evidence indicates repeated cycles of warfare and uneasy peace, with the dalar repeatedly grouping together into short-lived confederations before splitting apart, likely due as much to internal pressures as external ones. By around 500 BCE, the dalar were scattered again, gathered in small groups or tribes of a few hundred or thousand at most, frequently under attack by humans, and their territory had been severely reduced to the areas surrounding Lake Ani and Lake Tenkal.

At this time, the area along the Dera River was held by the Garsenians, a loose confederation of small villages and nomadic groups, led by a council of elders from each group. Around 470 BCE, with pressure from humans increasing again, the Garsenian elders selected an upcoming military commander named Tirina to serve as leader, believing (as did Tirina) that the best opportunity for the survival of the dalar was to forsake their traditional independent, semi-nomadic ways in favor of a unified nation with a central government, distinct from humanity. Under the leadership of Tirina and her husband, the Garsenian Confederation quickly expanded, initially through economic and military alliances, and later through military force.

Consolidation

The loose structure of the original confederation could not support the growing numbers of members, leading to extensive government reform around 450 BCE. Tirina and her husband took direct control of the military, transforming the council of elders from the ultimate authority into more of a council of advisors or cabinet. She also implemented cultural policies, making the Garsen language the official language of government and attempting to meld together the disparate dalar cultures into a single identity.

These policies were not uniformly well-received, especially by the most recent additions to the increasingly un-confederation-like confederation, but other policies, such as setting up free schools in major towns and giving every settlement legal representation in the council of elders (previously, only the original members could participate), were much more widely approved of. She also took steps to prepare for the future after she was badly wounded in a battle, urging the council to select candidates for her successor for her to choose from. While she ultimately recovered from the wound (although she did die a few decades later nonetheless), it still set an important precedent that lasted for many generations, of the council choosing candidates and the supreme leader approving of one.

In 338 BCE, Tirina's husband died of unspecified medical problems, most likely a stroke. Tirina herself died shortly after, in 333 or 332 BCE (depending on the historian). Prior to her death, the council had approved a number of candidates, of whom Tirina selected Dengel (Modern Tirina: Dinel), her middle child; the modern tradition of two sarda with equal power had not yet developed, despite Tirina and her husband ruling jointly.

By all accounts, Dengel was an able ruler, and widely liked. Rather than continue the expansion of the Garsenian Confederation, he continued the efforts to consolidate them, and won a number of notable victories against humans that solidified the dalar hold on the territory surrounding the Sanmra Lakes, as well as the coastline near the mouth of the Dera River. In the course of this unification effort, he made a number of concessions to pacify the outer territories and nomadic groups that resented Garsenian rule, such as granting certain groups special permission to conduct government business in their native languages, but died of a lingering illness before fully satisfying them. His successor <some name> was not a bad leader, but was not as skilled as Dengel and Tirina had been, and the protests turned into full-blown rebellion during his rule. In 74 BCE, <some name> died and passed the rule to Orsea (Modern Tirina: Orsi), who was a weak-minded, fickle man whose attempts to consolidate power only deepened the divide between the Garsens and everyone else. Ultimately, in 19 CE, these groups rebelled in the Ahčān Revolution, named after one of the most famous rebel leaders, Ahčān (Modern Tirina: Arhan).

After a number of skirmishes, Orsea decided it was better to let the rebels go and tighten power over those that remained, rather than risk a longer civil war that could have encouraged others to join them. The peace was a tenuous one, and border raids between Garsen and <the other nation> remained common. For their part, the nomadic groups (including the ancestors of the Tuanmalis) found no peace; they had long been discriminated against by their more settled brethren, and the surrounding human nations didn't welcome them either. Eventually, a large number emigrated, wandering restlessly until they finally found a home in Boroso, amid other nonhumans.

Reunification

Over the years, Garsen and <the other place> fragmented and reformed repeatedly, occasionally trying to reunite before splitting up again, but never entirely collapsing due to the constant pressure from the human nations surrounding them. Eventually, (1500 AD or so?) the two nations finally became unified (probably as a result of more human wars, #ThanksHumanity) and have remained so ever since.

Development into the modern state

Over time, the state of Sanmra slowly developed into its modern form. The council of elders was reformed several times before it became the democratic congress of today, with two representatives from each district or israd (a district generally consisting of a single large town or city, perhaps with smaller towns or villages nearby). The position of sarda also went through many changes, and in fact spent a good portion of time as nothing more than a figurehead before reclaiming power. Today, Sanmra is a stable, prosperous nation that lives peaceably with its human neighbors and believes trade is a better method of diplomacy than war.

Geography

The most obvious geographic features of Sanmra are its lakes--Lake Ani to the east and Lake Tenkal to the west. The two lakes are revered as the cradle of dalar civilization, and have always been the core of their territory. The Dera River leads from Lake Ani to the Dragon Sea, the UNNAMED RIVER connects Lake Tenkal and Lake Ani, and the Seodin River feeds into Lake Tenkal from the north.

Geology

Climate

Biodiversity

Tirina names for geographical features

Native names for various geographical features are as follows:

General Name Tirina Name Pronunciation and Meaning
Sahar Sahar [sa.'har]
Taanttu Gulf/Pođnae Doši Podana Dosi [po.ˈd̪an.a ˈd̪o.si] Borrowed from Nithalos
Isthmus of Meliku ıtali ni Meliku [ɪt̪.ˈa.li ni me.ˈli.ku]
Far northern parts of Asura Ocean Ado Kalusali [ˈa.d̪o ka.ˈlu.sa.ˌli] Icy Ocean, more or less
Asura Ocean Ado Ipari [ˈa.d̪o ɪ.ˈpa.ri] Western Ocean

Politics

The modern Sanmra state is a representative democracy headed by an elected dictator, if that makes any sense. Think, like, Roman dictator, except it's for life.

Government

There are two main divisions in the Sanmra government: the nuoda (Voters) and the sarda (the (pair of) supreme leader(s)). The nuoda pass/repeal laws, handle taxes, regulate interactions between districts, and take care of a number of administrative duties. The sarda technically have absolute control of government, but in practice mostly just confirm/veto laws, run the executive and judicial branches, and serve as the head of the military--the actual head, not just a symbolic one.

Nuoda

The nuoda are democratically elected from each district. By tradition, both two representatives are elected, one as the "inner" representative (Nuoda Tewa; their bailiwick is generally the main municipality of their district) and one as the "outer" representative (Nuoda Kade; they deal with matters outside of town, such as farms and roads). Often the inner representative is a woman and the outer is a man, but not always--sometimes the genders are reversed, or sometimes (rarely) both are male or female.

The nuoda are led by the lun nuoda (first voters); the current First Voters are Talesın ni ??? and his wife Preli ni ??? rıl ???.

Sarda

The sarda is a pair of leaders--always a man and a woman--who are the supreme leaders and representatives of the Sanmra government. It's a lifetime position, but not a hereditary one; the sarda are appointed democratically by the nuoda. The sarda may be members of the nuoda, but just as often are not. While the two have equal power and are due equal respect, one or the other tends to be the "head"; although nobody formally recognizes this, everybody knows it. Often, but not always, the two are a married couple; sometimes they've been brother and sister, very occasionally parent and child or cousins, and even more rarely two totally unrelated people.

The sarda is expected to moderate serious conflict between districts or among the nuoda, and in addition to political duties, is expected to fight alongside the military during times of war, physically defending their nation to their last breath. In today's era, however, this is unlikely, as the Sanmra attempt to avoid war rather than invite it.

The current sarda is Tien'a ni Edara and her husband Ledan rıl Losa.

Administrative divisions

Sanmra is divided into a large number of districts (known natively as israd), most of which consist of a single large municipality (a city or large town), along with the surrounding area and any small municipalities nearby.

Foreign relations

Sanmra has always been a more secluded nation, but in the previous few centuries has begun to participate more in the broader international stage. They are famously neutral and, thanks to their long lives and careful attitudes toward money, are respectably comfortable from an economic perspective.

Military

Sanmra traditionally is a strongly neutral country, preferring not to take sides in foreign affairs if at all possible. Therefore, the military is not very "military", and carries many responsibilities other than the physical defense of the nation. The majority of the military do not actually perform traditional "military" activities, but rather are police officers, border patrol agents, or are employed by the justice branch. There are four divisions within the Tasen ni Sanmra (Army of Sanmra): the Kasti, the ENE, the Len, and the Puorn.

Kasti

The kasti (police) make up the bulk of the Sanmra army. This organization is further divided into full-time military professionals (which do exist in Sanmra, there just aren't a huge number of them under ordinary circumstances), border patrol agents (which includes Sanmra's naval forces), and law enforcement officers (which ordinarily work independently of the actual military). Any species can become kasti, although non-dalar rarely are assigned outside of areas dominated by their species.

ENE

The Edaralni ni Enarlea (Office of Intelligence) are the Sanmra special forces, an elite group of operatives that gather and analyze foreign intelligence, as well as carry out covert ops. The organization is frequently called the ENE or Eda-Ena for short. Many ex-len or those who were not accepted into the len are among their ranks, especially as officers. Both non-dalar and dalar are allowed in the ENE, although the barriers to entry are such that very few non-dalar ever are accepted.

Len

The len are a strictly structured, highly traditional paramilitary organization that has existed in one form or another in Sanmra for centuries. Technically speaking, while they are considered to be under military oversight, they are an independent organization and are only truly answerable to their very strict code of honor. Historically, the len have acted as an important check on the power of the sarda, who otherwise would have direct command of all Sanmra's armed forces. Only dalar are eligible to apply to the len, and there are strict application requirements as well as a number of grueling tests before an applicant is even accepted as a candidate. Those who are accepted as candidates undergo five years of training, and if accepted at the conclusion of their training, must give up all ties to their former life to become a full-time member.

The len primarily serve as bodyguards for government officials and carry out certain types of federal investigations. They also perform some intelligence work. There have been various movements over the years for the len to accept non-dalar, but there is not much support for this, even among non-dalar.

Puorn

The puorn (courts) are the criminal justice branch of the Sanmra government. (Civil courts are handled separately.) They are closely tied to the kasti. Any individuals who are qualified to be civil judges, regardless of species, are also qualified to be criminal judges, although again dalar are much more common.

Economy

Historically, the Sanmra nation did little trade with its neighbors, but this has changed dramatically in the past few centuries. Today, most of Sanmra's economy is supported through export of natural resources, including food and other agricultural products. While strict laws limit the involvement of non-Sanmra citizens in commerce, many foreign companies have forged partnerships with Sanmra companies to take advantage of the relatively low taxes and economic freedom of Sanmra.

Transport

Airports

The largest and busiest Sanmra airport is the Elten International Airport (Emroili ni Elten ıku Adıfas), the primary entry point for visitors to the country. The only other international airport is <airport name>, located in Orsili. Important domestic commercial airports can be found in Sakaran and <other cities>.

Seaports

The largest seaport is the Elten City Docks (Denekere ni Akoima ni Elten), the primary import/export hub for the nation. The second-largest seaport is <seaport name> in Orsili, which is known as a popular port for cruise vessels.

Waterways

The Dera River connects the Dragon Sea and Lake Ani. It is navigable through its entire length, although the construction of locks was necessary to allow modern shipping vessels to reach Lake Ani. It is a major shipping route into the interior of the country. Smaller ships are able to navigate the UNNAMED RIVER into Lake Tenkal as well.

The Seodin River is too shallow to allow large boats, but historically, shallow-bottomed ferries ran up and down its length to transport goods to the northwest of modern-day Sanmra. Today, some boats still run on the river to transport goods, but to a much lesser degree. In modern times, passenger cruises along the river are a popular and relatively inexpensive vacation option.

Shipping is also common on Lake Ani.

Energy

Science and technology

Tourism

Sanmra historically was extremely isolationist, and it was difficult for visitors not from Alpa to enter the nation. However, this has changed in the past couple of centuries, and today tourism to Sanmra's southern coast and lakes is a growing industry.

Demographics

In 2010, the population of Sanmra was about 6.5 million people. While some human families have lived among the Sanmra for years, the majority are more recent immigrants and live in the major cities. Dalar are the primary inhabitants of Sanmra; the second-largest group is humans, and the third-largest is vodholk. Small populations of all other sentient species do exist in Sanmra, but are highly exotic sights outside of the busiest parts of the largest cities.

Life expectancy is good for dalar--barring deaths due to violence, the average life expectancy is about 200 years of age. And deaths due to violence are down in the past century or two.

As is common for dalar, about 50% of women have never given birth; this percentage has remained relatively constant for many years. However, among women who do have children, they on average have multiple children, which coupled with the slightly increased life expectancy has led to a very slowly growing population.

Families

The basic social and legal unit in Sanmra is the family, a term that refers to a government-registered extended family. Many legal rights and other laws are specifically written with regards to families; individuals who are not registered as part of any family suffer many hardships and legal difficulties. (for example, voting rights are actually extended to families, not individuals, although a registered member of a family could choose to submit an individual vote that differs from that of their overall family)

Ethnic groups

While Sanmra was originally founded by uniting disparate groups of dalar, the modern nation is remarkably homogeneous--over time, intermarriage has led everybody to look pretty much the same. There are a few small groups that have maintained a unique culture separate from the dominant Sanmra culture, but only a small number of the population--less than 10% total--belongs to any of them.

Urbanization

While the major Sanmra cities have certainly grown, many Sanmra still cling to the old ways of life--farming, hunting, fishing, and generally living in small communities of a few hundred or thousand, rather than big cities like Elten or Sakaran with hundreds of thousands of inhabitants.

Language

The official and by far most widely-spoken language is Tirina. Major dialects include Elten Tirina (spoken in, obviously, Elten, and generally associated with upper-class and political figures) and Sakaran Tirina (spoken primarily in, obviously, Sakaran). As it has been since the time of Tirina, it is the language of government and law (although concessions are now made for government-provided translators, if necessary).

A majority of the population has at least passing familiarity with a second language. About a quarter of the population is actually bilingual--fluent in at least one other language. Bilingualism is on the rise, especially among young Sanmra citizens who use the internet heavily.

Of human languages, the most commonly-known are ???.

Education

Basic education (both primary and secondary education) is both free and mandatory, resulting in a literacy rate of over 99%. Government-sponsored schools are located in every municipality (although some small villages may have a combined school district) and follow a broad curriculum developed by the federal Department of Education. "Kindergarten/pre-school" is provided starting at age 8 for dalar, but it is not actually mandatory for a child to attend school until age 10. This schooling lasts to when a child becomes a legal adult at 30, although most students complete their courses two or three years prior to this point. Private/independent schools and homeschooling are generally illegal, except under special circumstances (e.g. a student with disabilities that cannot be adequately served in a government school).

In municipalities with large non-dalar populations, separate schools or at least classrooms are generally provided for non-dalar, as other species mature at a faster rate. As most non-dalar in Sanmra are either human or Vodholk, non-dalar schools typically target these groups, with school beginning around age 6 for students and going through late teens. For areas where non-dalar schools or classrooms are not available, the Sanmran government provides mail-order homeschool courses and basic materials free of charge, one of the major exceptions to mandatory public schooling. Alternately, in some areas, registered tutors may privately teach a small number of non-dalar.

After grade school, many young adults move directly into the workforce. For certain careers, such as some technical fields, there are popular paid apprenticeship programs. However, there are also post-secondary institutions such as universities for very technical fields--medicine and law, for example--or simply for deeper, more comprehensive education on a subject, such as political science or history. Universities do have tuition costs, but in many cases, they are waived. If a student is from a large, wealthy, or powerful family, it is likely their family's endowments will make up for the tuition. If they are from a poor or small family, need-based scholarships are generally available.

Healthcare

Sanmra healthcare is privatized, I think.

Religion

Sanmra religion is dominated by traditional practices sometimes referred to as kowut 'rituals'. Kowut is not an organized religion, but rather a mass of diverse and often conflicting beliefs and mythology linked with certain rituals. Most dalar in Sanmra do not identify as religious, yet still participate in Kowut practices, even if they would otherwise claim to be agnostic or atheistic. A small number of dalar do belong to more "normal" religions, such as Iovism (maybe???), and most non-dalar are either religious in "normal" ways or are agnostic/atheistic.

Culture

Heritage

Architecture

Literature

Art

Music

Theater

Film

Cuisine

Sport

Symbols

See also