|5 million (2010, est.)
|Regions with significant populations
|elsewhere on Sahar
|Related ethnic groups
The Sanmra people are a dalar ethnic group native to Sanmra and the surrounding parts of southern Alpa. The vast majority of the Sanmra people live in Sanmra today, although small numbers have emigrated to Tuanmali or live scattered elsewhere throughout Sahar.
The ancestors of the dalar first reached Alpa approximately 150,000 years ago and spread throughout much of the continent. When the first humans arrived around 70,000 to 50,000 years ago, competition with the dalar pushed the humans to colonize Nagu and then Boroso. When the second wave of humans arrived, around 15,000 years ago, the roles were reversed, with the dalar being pushed back into smaller and smaller territory. It was not until the uniting of the dalar tribes in the Garsenian Confederation, under the rule of Tirina, that the dalar were able to stand against the humans and hold the land that would become the modern-day Sanmra nation.
As a result, the Sanmra as an ethnic group actually have their origins in a number of separate ethnic groups that, due to time and various cultural integration efforts by the government of the Garsenian Confederation, merged into a fairly homogeneous group. The various Tuanmali ethnic groups also have their origin in the groups absorbed by the Garsenian Confederation, but split off very early, before most of these homogenizing influences had significant effect.
The origin of the name of the ethnic group--and the nation they primarily inhabit--is unknown. Most theories about its origin assume it derives from the Garsen language (perhaps related to rama 'land'), but some recent theories suggest it is actually from one of the other Garsenian languages that was spoken at the time.
See also: Religion in Sanmra
The primary language spoken by the Sanmra people is Tirina. While other languages may be known as second languages, virtually all Sanmra have Tirina as their first language. Tirina is a Garsenian language, the only surviving member of that family. There are two major dialects, Elten Tirina and Sakaran Tirina. Elten Tirina is close to the standard dialect and is spoken primarily in Elten and along the coast of Sanmra. Sakaran Tirina is spoken in Sakaran and the northern parts of the country, especially the northern coasts of Lake Ani.
The language is written with the Sanmra script.