Seto language

From CWS Planet
Jump to: navigation, search
Seto language
Seto Ka'Palo
RegionBaredina
Native speakers0(extinct)  (no date)
Language family
Palawe
  • Seto language
CWS code

The Seto Language is an extinct language once spoken in North Baredina by the Palavozlo people, a group of Palawe peoples, it was the main language of the Palavozlo Kingdom.

Despite being called Seto Ka'Palo by some, it is not certain if Seto Ka'Palo was the real name of the Seto language when it was used.

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative s x h
Affricate ʦ
Approximant ʋ j w
Trill (r)
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric. ɬ~tɬ
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

Vowels

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i ɨ u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid e o
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a

Phonotactics

  • Syllable Structure: (C)VV(C)
  • voiced plosives, affricates, fricates other than /s/, glides and /ʋ/ don't end a syllable.
  • /ɨ/ is the weak vowel and is often dropped in fast speech.
  • The glottal stop /ʔ/ becomes [h] between vowels.
  • Stress usually falls on the penultimate syllable, and falls on the antepenultimate syllable if the vowel of the penultimate syllable is /ɨ/.
  • The epenthetic vowel /ʔ/ is used between two morphemes, if the preceding morpheme ends with a vowel and the following morpheme also starts with a vowel.

Transcription

  • A - /a/
  • B - /b/
  • D - /d/
  • E - /e/
  • F - /f/
  • G - /g/
  • H - /x/
  • I - /i/
  • (Ï - /ɨ/)
  • K - /k/
  • L - /l/
  • M - /m/
  • N - /n/
  • O - /o/
  • P - /p/
  • R - /r~ɾ/
  • S - /s/
  • T - /t/
  • TL - /ɬ~tɬ/
  • U - /u/
  • V - /ʋ/
  • W - /w/
  • Y - /j/
  • Z - /ʦ/
  • ' - /ʔ/

Grammar

Morphology

Nouns

Verbs

Syntax

Word Order

  • Basic Word Order: Subject-Verb-Object(SVO)
  • Adpositions are prepositions
  • Adjectives, Demonstratives, Numerals, Relative clauses, Possessors follow the noun they modify.

Subordinate Clauses

Words

Pronouns

Personal pronouns:

1st person/ist exclusive 1st person inclusive 2nd person 3rd masculine 3rd feminine 3rd animate neuter 3rd inanimate neuter
singular go/gïlo - ne pibre imbi oga
dual gek/gïlek eglo eno pibreno imbino ogano
plural gekom/gïlekom eglokom ekom pibrekom imbikom ogakom

Demonstratives:

Pronominal form Adnominal form
Proximate nesto ne(masculine)/ni(feminine)/no(neuter)
Distal nasto nae(masculine)/nai(feminine)/nao(neuter)
Definite Article (none) tle(masculine)/tli(feminine)/tlo(neuter)

The Definite articles tle/tli/tlo might be contracted to tl-

Interrogatives:

  • who/what: ke(masculine)/ki(feminine)/ko(neuter)
  • why: kopa
  • where: koso

Adpositions

  • at/to: so
  • from: le
  • for/because: pa
  • with(comitative): ni
  • with(instrumental): sik
  • of: ka*
  • (vocative): ha*
  • as/like: gaik>

Note: ka and ha can be cliticized to the following words.

Numerals

  1. 1:tomu
  2. 2:notu
  3. 3:savu
  4. 4:notagu
  5. 5:tladu
  6. 6:tladatomu
  7. 7:tladanotu/kïlonu
  8. 8:tladasavu
  9. 9:tladanotagu
  10. 10:kumu
  • 20:kumagu
  • 100:yekamo
  • 1,000:sagamo
  • 10,000:ogamo

Conjunctions and others

Conjunctions:

  • and: i
  • if: nor

Conjunctional adverbs(causing the change of word order):

  • (complementizer): alut/ha
  • (question word): ul
    • yes: ha
    • no: nat
  • only/but: tlim
  • so: nastole(<nasto+le)
  • therefore: nastopa(<nasto+pa)
  • when(at the time that): temoso~tenso(<temo+so)