Tullach language

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Tullach
onna t:Túloh
on:a t'tUloh
Pronunciation[ˈonːa təˈhulox]
RegionYstel
Native speakers1,445,000 (total)  (2023)
Language family
DialectsCilnanny
Hivasaû
Rural
Writing systemDivorced Adzamic
Official status
Official language in Hranloc
 Tullachia
CWS codeTLCH

Tullach (on:a t'tUloh; onna t:Túloh, [ˈonːa təˈhulox]) is a Tullachian language within the Ystelic branch of the Ystelo-Atruozan language family. It is most closely related to Stratavite and Rocnaian.

Though spoken by small minorities in neighbouring nations, such as Lower Stratavar and Thraquy, Tullach is only officially recognised in Tullachia and Hranloc.

Tullach is written using a form of the Adzamic script, in which glyphs are no longer interconnected and do not have initial, medial, final or isolated forms. "Divorced" Adzamic also makes use of specific stylisations of certain glyphs as well as some Tullach-specific additions.

Name

In some linguistic discussions, the Tullach language may be referred to as Floxy (on:a vlok:a; onna vlocca, [ˈonːa ˈvloʰkːa]), due to its historical emergence from the marshlands towards the east of the country. This alternate name was deemed warranted due to confusion with the Tullachian language family. Previous attempts to clarify the name ended with Thraxian (on:a hrak:a; onna hracca, [ˈonːa ˈʰr̥aʰkːa]), which then however created confusion with the Rocnaian dialect Thraquy.

Dialects

Tullach is generally divided into three dialects, though these are usually mutually intelligible with each other and only in certain areas do they differ so vastly in phonology, syntax or orthography. It is of course to be understood that in areas where Tullach is for the most part a secondary language, in particular Stratavite and Rocnaian-speaking communities, imperfections in learning have caused other steady non=standard forms of Tullach to arise.

Hivasaû (Standard) Tullach

The dialect of Tullach spoken in and around the Hracciû Metropolitan Area forms the standard variation as is spoken in political and educational environments.

Rural Tullach

The various sub-dialects and accents found throughout Tullachia's sparse rural communities are generally grouped together due to their vast similarities in all but phonology. This dialect encompasses the largest land area of the three main dialects, ranging from as eastwards as Vlencûostiû, as far south as Cilloh to as far westwards as the Flox.

Cilnanny Tullach

This dialect emerged in Inil teCilna and subsequently spread to southern mainland Tullachia. Some linguists argue that Cilnnany diverged enough from Middle Tullach to be considered a separate language, mostly aided by the Cilna Local Council who list it as a proxy-official language. Nonetheless, it is rapidly growing unpopular amongst locals, nowadays only notably visible in the far south-east of Inil teCilna.

Phonology

Consonants

(Standard) Tullach consonant phonemes
Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Labio-velar Velar Glottal
Nasal voiceless plain (ŋ̊)
labialised
voiced plain m n (ŋ)
labialised mʷː nʷː
Plosive voiceless plain p ʰpː t ʰtː k ʰkː
labialised pʷː ʰpʷː tʷː ʰtʷː kʷː ʰkʷː
voiced plain b d g
labialised bʷː dʷː gʷː
Fricative voiceless plain (f) s ʃ x h
labialised sʷː ʃʷ
voiced plain v ð
labialised ðʷ
Affricate voiceless plain t͡s
labialised t͡sʷ
Lateral approximant voiced plain l
labialised lʷː
Lateral fricative voiceless plain ɬ ɬː
labialised ɬʷ ɬʷː
Approximant voiceless ʍ
voiced j w
Trill voiceless ʰr̥
voiced r r:
Flap voiceless
voiced ɾ
  • Voiceless [n̥] and [ŋ̊] only ever appear as syllabic consonants:
    • tusknzøtuscnzø [ˈtus.kn̥̩.ˌt͡sø] ('merchant ship')
    • isknzraØhiscnzraǿh [ˌɪs.kn̩.t͡sɾa.ˈøx] ('necromancy')
    • aznkAtazncát [ˌa.t͡sŋ̩̊.ˈkat] ('happiness')
  • [ŋ] is an allophone of [n] before velar consonants.
    • ankahancah [ˈaŋ.kax] ('tremor, earthquake')
  • [f] appears only in loanwords, however is nonetheless written and thus often pronounced just as ⟨v⟩ [v].

Vowels

(Standard) Tullach vowel phonemes
Front Near-front Central Back
Close i u
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid e ø o
Mid ə
Open a

Initial mutations

Tullach, similar to other languages in the Tullachian language family, is characterised by its lenitive consonant mutation. These mutations affect the initial consonant of a word or a words primary morpheme under specific morphological and syntactic conditions.

This table shows the phonological effects of lenition across both the affected plain and labialised consonants in Tullach with both Adzamic and Romanised spellings.

Unmutated Lenition
IPA Example Pronunciation Meaning IPA Example Pronunciation Meaning
p /p/
/pʷ/
pokta
pocta
/ˈpokta/ camel /v/
/vʷ/
t'pOkta
t:pócta
/təˈvokta/ of the camel
b /b/
/bʷ/
brih
brih
/bɾɪx/ bog /v/
/vʷ/
g'brIh
g:bríh
/gəˈvɾɪx/ at the bog
t /t/
/tʷ/
twogoh
tûogoh
/ˈtʷogox/ mammoth /h/
/ʍ/
r'twOgoh
r:tûógoh
/ɾəˈʍogox/ to the mammoth
d /d/
/dʷ/
dwar
dûar
/dʷar/ headland /ð/
/ðʷ/
g'dwAr
g:dûár
/gəˈðʷar/ at the headland
k /k/
/kʷ/
kom:a
comma
/ˈkomːa/ feather /x/
/xʷ/
t'kOm:a
t:cómma
/təˈxomːa/ of the feather
g /g/
/gʷ/
gey
g
/gɛi̯/ pasture /x/
/xʷ/
ka'gEya
ca:géîa
/kaˈxeja/ in the pastures
s /s/
/sʷ/
swa
sûa
/sʷa/ gust of wind /ʃ/
/ʃʷ/
ł'swA
ł:sûá
/ɬəˈʃʷa/ by a gust of wind
l /l/
/lʷ/
løt
løt
/løt/ crown /ɬ/
/ɬʷ/
t'lØt
t:lǿt
/təˈɬøt/ of the crown
h /h/ hutar
hutar
/ˈhutar/ eye /∅/ s'hutra
s:hutra
/ˈsutɾa/ two eyes
hr /ʰr̥/ hruk:iw
hrucciû
/ˈʰr̥uʰkːɪʍ/ mattress /r/ g'hrUk:iw
g:hrucciva
/gəˈruʰkːɪva/ on mattresses

Environments of lenition

Consonant mutation can occur in Tullach in the following circumstances:

  • After a case proclitic (exemplified in the table above);
  • In the absolutive singular or plural after non-compound numbers and quantifiers:
    • taw døtaû dø [taw ðø] ('three fields')
    • giw hrak:agiû hracca [gɪw ˈraʰkːa] ('great secrecy' [lit: 'a lot of secrecy'])
  • After the imperative particle:
    • a tis.a tis! [a his] ('Spread yourselves out!')
    • u a gøn:ay us.u a gønnaî us! [wa ˈxønːai̯ us] ('Don't get angry at me!')

Changes to vowel-initial words

In some dialects, particularly Western Rural Tullach, vowel-initial words may undergo n-prosthesis after common approximant-final words.

  • Nouns marked by non-compound numbers and quantifiers in the absolutive singular or plural for all noun classes, the dative dual or plural for human nouns, or the instrumental dual for inanimate nouns:
    • taw n'ankakataû n-ancaca [taw ˈnaŋ.ka.ka] ('three earthquakes')
    • giw n'on:agiû n-onna [gɪw ˈnonːa] ('a lot of talking')
    • ab:ay n'u'hrUn:avakadabbaî n-u:hrúnnavacad [ˈabːai̯ nəˈrunːaˌvacað] ('for the very few bakers')
    • vuw n'u'lOzahvuû n-u:lózah [vou̯ nəˈɬo.t͡sax] ('not with either of the two knives')
  • All vowel-beginning verbs in the imperative after the imperative particle:
    • a n'ałEn.a n-ałén! [a naˈɬen] ('get on your knees!')

Prosody

Tullach typically follows an antepenultimate stress system in words with three syllables or more; in words with two syllables, stress tends to fall on the penult. Any other syllable with primary stress is marked with a diacritic. The stressed syllable of a stem word is maintained in compounds and with case proclitics:

  • hrak:ahracca [ˈʰr̥aʰkːa] ('dark, black; secret, obscure')
  • hrak:ahracca [ˈʰr̥aʰkːa] ('darkness; secrecy, obscurity')
  • hrak:arahraccara [ˈʰr̥aʰkːaˌɾa] ('to be dark, be black; to be secretive, lie in the shadows')
  • ahrAk:aahrácca [aˈraʰkːa] ('to darken, make black, make dirty; to obscure; to afflict')
  • ahrAk:ahahráccah [aˈraʰkːax] ('act of darkening')
  • ahrak:akaahraccaca [aˈraʰkːaˌka] ('stain')
  • ahrak:ayaahraccaîa [aˈraʰkːaˌja] ('to become dark, turn black; to get dirty')
  • g'hrAk:ag:hrácca [gəˈraʰkːa] ('in secrecy')
  • k'ahrak:akac:ahraccaca [kaˈraʰkaka] ('with a stain')
  • a n'ahrAk.a n-ahrác! [a naˈrak] ('make it darker!')

Orthography

Tullach has been written in a variety of scripts over its history. Currently, the dominant script is an adapted form of the Adzamic script, adopted first by Tullachians, but later spread to surrounding countries including Stratavar, Rocnaia and Mermelia. The script is categorised as divorced due to it containing uniform print lettering, as opposed to joined writing with differing initial, medial, final and isolated forms.

Tullach (Divorced Adzamic) script
Tullach a i e ø o u y w p b t d k g m n s z l r ł v h
Adzamic a i e ô ō û ī ū p b t d g m n s z l š ž f h
Latin a i e ø o u î û p b t d c g m n s z l r ł v h

In addition to these 23 letters, the grapheme ⟨:⟩ appears often in Tullach orthography; though not representing a phoneme in its own right, it serves to geminate the preceding consonant.

  • ałUraałúra [aˈɫuɾa] ('to set on fire')
  • ał:Uraałłúra [aˈɫːuɾa] ('to burn out')

Older forms of Tullach cursive are a direct reference to Adzamic; most writing however is done in block letters or with infrequent ligatures.

Tullach Adzamic Latin English
askatolah asḳatōlah ascatolah 'improvement'
yeksagøn īeḳsagôn îecsagøn 'skin condition'
paknzredoh paḳnzšedōh pacnzredoh 'furniture leg'

Nouns

Noun classes

Tullach nouns are divided into three noun classes: human, animate and inanimate.

Plurality

Tullach nouns can be inflected in the singular, dual or plural.

Case system

Tullach is perceived to have six grammatical cases: absolutive, ergative, dative, genitive, locative and instrumental. The absolutive, ergative and dative are core cases. Due to the inconsistent morphosyntactic alignment of Tullach, each one has several different uses, some of which overlap; this is addressed in the verb class section. The non-core cases are the genitive, locative and instrumental.

  • The genitive is used to indicate both alienable and inalienable possession. It is also used to attribute qualities to a person (ie. 'a man of great strength'). For objects perceived to be inherently unpossessable, generally considered things that can be associated to a person but that they can never exhibit control over (ie. people, land, overpowering emotions), ownership is illustrated with the possessor in the dative.
  • The locative case is used to mark the location of an action. It can also be used on abstract nouns as a primitive adverbial case.
  • The instrumental case indicates an object with which an action was performed. It additionally functions as a comitative case, demonstrating the companionship and togetherness of two or more objects.

Adjectives

An adjective must agree in case with the noun it modifies. In very few circumstances does an adjective need to agree in number, however they never alter based on gender. The base form, used only for absolutive nouns, is listed in dictionaries. The dative form is normally formed by substituting final -a with -s, whereas the form used for the other cases - as a result dubbed the "oblique" form - typically substitutes -a for -i.

In spoken Tullach, adjectives tend to be placed after the modified noun, however in poetic, literary or oratory contexts, adjectives may be positioned wherever as to best fit the intentions of the speaker.

Adjectival form Tullach Transliteration Pronunciation Translation
Basic brøska sana brøsca sana bɾøska sana 'a happy archer'
Dative s'brØska sans s:brǿsca sans səvɾøska sans 'to/for a happy archer'
Oblique t'brØska sani t:brǿsca sani təvɾøska sani 'of a happy archer'

Exceptions to this standard vary depending on the final consonant(s) of the base adjective.

  • Adjectives already ending in -s instead take -t in the dative:
    • s'ok:iva pasts:occiva past [ˈso.ʰkːi.va past] ('for the short gardens')
    • lu s'łEviw yestlu s:łéviû îest [lu sə.ˈɬe.vɪʍ jest] ('towards the clear night sky')
  • Adjectives ending in -Cs have an irregular stem entirely:
    • calU g'tUriw windicalú g:túriû ûindi [kaˈlu gə.ˈhu.ɾɪʍ ˈwɪn.di] ('opposite the impoverished hamlet')
  • Final geminated consonants in adjectival stems are ungeminated in the dative:
    • u'tuskAna kelsu:tuscána cels [u.hus.ˈka.na kels] ('to the two wicked merchants')
    • s'øgakad nwekss:øgacad nûecs [ˈsø.ga.kað nʷeks] ('for the sailors in the middle')
  • Adjectival stems ending in change to -u in the dative:
    • lu r'wId wot:uslu r:ûíd ûottus [lu ɾə.ˈwið ˈwoʰtːus] ('to the inaccessible river')
  • Adjectives ending in -îi in the oblique change to :
    • ey g'dØeî g:dǿ [ɛi̯ gə.ˈðø] ('in each field')
    • ka'sEgat deyca:ségat deî [ka.ˈʃe.gat dɛi̯] ('with a light blue paint brush')

Certain adjectives may only decline on number when it alters their very definition. For example, eîa in the singular means 'each'; the archaic dual eîan is used to mean 'both'; when made plural, eîad means 'all'. A similar situation can found in giû ('much') and giva ('many'), as well as vel ('little') and vella ('few'), although this does not happen with abbaî ('very few/little') which can be used for both count and mass nouns.

Verb system

Tullach verbs can be differentiated into four verb classes. Classes do not vary much grammatically, however they can be distinguished by the respective epenthetic vowel placed between prefixal morphemes and the case that the direct object takes (if any apply), usually absolutive or dative.

Verb classes

Transitive verbs (Class 1 verbs)

Class 1 verbs always have an ergative subject and an absolutive direct object. Some examples are "eat", "hold" and "lead".

Exertive verbs (Class 2 verbs)

Class 2 verbs are similar to Class 1 verbs in their metagrammatical sense, however use the same thematic epenthesis as Class 3 verbs. Additionally, subjects take the absolutive case and direct objects take the dative case. Verbs in this class, such as "punch", "address" and "drown", imply a sense of direction towards the object, be it physically or figuratively. A causative active Class 4 verb functions as a Class 2 verb.

Intransitive verbs (Class 3 verbs)

Intransitive verbs only have a subject and no direct object. Some examples are "sleep", "run" and "talk". A causative antipassive Class 4 verb functions as a Class 3 verb.

Stative verbs (Class 4 verbs)

Class 4 verbs differ from Class 3 verbs in that stative verbs lack agency or culpability in the action. Actions such as sleeping and running are made consciously; in contrast, "hurt" (ie. "feel pain") is still an intransitive, non-passive action that affects the subject. Verbs formed by suffixing -ra onto adjectives fall into this category.

Verb components

Tullach is an agglutinating language. Agglutination means that affixes each express a single meaning, and they usually do not merge with each other or affect each other phonologically. Each verb tense, aspect and mood is formed by adding a number of prefixes and suffixes to the verb stem. Certain affix categories are limited to certain tenses, aspects and moods. In a given tense-aspect-mood, not all possible markers are obligatory. The components of a Tullach verb form occur in the following order:

Tullach verb template
prepositional preverb voice marker subject marker direct object marker {thematic epenthesis} indirect object marker {thematic epenthesis} VERB ROOT causative marker past marker mood marker relativiser marker

Preverb

Much like in Gfiewish, though to a greater extent, Tullach verbs may be prefixed in a way to denote various aspectual distinctions or outright alter the meaning of the verb entirely. Etymologically, these verbal prefixes either stemmed from prepositions or common adjectives that adopted new meanings.

Preverbs are morphologically detached from the main verb root, and always appear as the first morpheme of a conjugated verb.

kwara
cûara
"to go, move"
on:a
onna
"to speak, talk"
rosta
rosta
"to take, capture"
Meaning of prefix
a-
a-
"towards, at" ak:wa
accûa
"to go out, set off, begin a journey; to progress"
aOn:a
aónna
"to make literate, teach language (to)"
arOsta
arósta
"to take, seize (a person), kidnap; to violate"
ad-
ad-
"down, under, up to; wrong, astray" adakwa
adacûa
"to go under or down, die; to sneak up (on)"
adOn:a
adónna
"to mumble, slur; to misspeak"
adrOsta
adrósta
"to trap, beguile, deceive; to collapse, crumble"
en-
en-
"cause within, inside" enkwa
encûa
"to set in motion; to cause; to inspire"
enrOsta
enrósta
"to absorb, engross"
ta-
ta-
"about, around" tak:wa
taccûa
"to wander around; to err, make a mistake"
taOn:a
taónna
"to circumlocute; to talk around a subject"
da-
da-
"up, above, on top" dak:wa
daccûa
"to ascend, mount; to pass away; to grow up"
daOn:a
daónna
"to articulate, put into words"
darOsta
darósta
"to undergo, endure; to bear or beget children"
ga-
ga-
"on, at the surface" gak:wa
gaccûa
"to walk or step on; to climb onto"
gaOn:a
gaónna
"to interrupt, talk over, speak out of turn"
garOsta
garósta
"to receive, accept; to hear; to obtain"
sa-
sa-
"from; outwards, away" sak:wa
saccûa
"to leave, exit; to escape (from)"
saOn:a
saónna
"to pronounce; to enunciate, speak clearly"
sarOsta
sarósta
"to steal, take away; to take as hostage"
ra-
ra-
"back; opposite" rak:wa
raccûa
"to return, come back; to turn away from"
raOn:a
raónna
"to speak a foreign language"
rarOsta
rarósta
"to confiscate, (authorities) seize"
ła-
ła-
"altogether, as one; at the same time" łak:wa
łaccûa
"to group, swarm; to be an ally of; to have sex"
łaOn:a
łaónna
"to converse; to chant, speak all at once"
łarOsta
łarósta
"to share with or amongst a group"
Rarer attested verbal prefixes
ub-
u(b)-
"either one of two; both at the same time" ubOn:a
ubónna
"to contradict; to confute"
tir-
tir-
"after" tir:Osta
tirrósta
"to avenge, exact revenge"
me-
me-
"close, nearby" mek:wa
meccûa
"to get close or near, approach"
nu-
nu-
"before, previously" nurOsta
nurósta
"to anticipate, expect; to take charge"
-
sø-
"big, great, vast" søOn:a
søónna
"to give a speech, orate"
hon-
hon-
"long-lasting, for a long time; repeatedly, often" honkwa
honcûa
"to travel often; to live a nomadic lifestyle"
honrOsta
honrósta
"to beseige"

Voice

Tullach verbs can be inflected either in the active, antipassive or applicative voice.

Verb personality

Verb subject and objects (direct and indirect) are reflected in conjugation.

Tullach pronominal verb infixes
Singular Dual Plural
masculine
feminine
animate
inanimate
masculine
feminine
animate
inanimate
masculine
feminine
animate
inanimate
Subject first-person -cr- -s- -nt-
second-person -g- -cc- -cîu-
third-person -s- -l- -pt- -elt- -st- -m- -bn- -eûl- -us- -br-
fourth-person -c- -t- -c- -- -- -d- -- -- --
Direct object first-person -n- -- -cnî-
second-person -l- -- -cu-
third-person -b- -û- -z- -al- -md- -ult- -ze- -am- -md- -lt- -- -z-
fourth-person -ec- -iûc- -ecc- -eddî- -iûtî- -ettî- -eddû- -iûtû- -ett-
Indirect object first-person -ov- -on- -onî-
second-person -ul- -uc- -ucû-
third-person -ob- -- -os- -- -omt- -olt- -ost- -omm- -ombn- -oûlt- -ostû- -ol-
fourth-person -og- -oûc- -occ- -od- -oûdî- -ot- -oddû- -oûdû- -ott-

Thematic epenthesis

Epenthesis occurs in consonant clusters between multiple persons or beside the verb root. It is described as "thematic" due to the used vowel changing between verb classes.

Class Infix Example
Transitive verbs
(Class 1 verbs)
-a-

g-a-z-î-én

2.SG-EP-3.PL.INAN-drink-PST

g-a-z-î-én

2.SG-EP-3.PL.INAN-drink-PST

'You drank them.'

Exertive verbs
(Class 2 verbs)
-u-

a-g-u-n-u-łúr-en

PVB-2.SG-EP-1.SG-EP-set.alight-PST

a-g-u-n-u-łúr-en

PVB-2.SG-EP-1.SG-EP-set.alight-PST

'You set me on fire.'

Intransitive verbs
(Class 3 verbs)
-u-

a-s-as-u-hracc-aî-en

PVB-ANTIP-2.DU-EP-be.dark-CAUS-PST

a-s-as-u-hracc-aî-en

PVB-ANTIP-2.DU-EP-be.dark-CAUS-PST

'Us two may have made [something] darker.'

Stative verbs
(Class 4 verbs)
-e-

cr-e-nûécc-en

1.SG-EP-be.central-PST

cr-e-nûécc-en

1.SG-EP-be.central-PST

'I was in the centre.'

Verb root

The length of the verb root typically ranges from one to four phonemes. Preverbs, though present in the infinitive and all possible conjugations of the verb, are not considered a part of the root.

Past marker

Tullach verbs only function with two tenses: past and non-past. Non-pastness is not marked. Some verbs may have past-specific stems.

Mood

The language has three moods: the indicative, subjunctive and conditional. The subjunctive mood is fairly common, being used to mark uncertain declarations, questions, some futures and, in formal contexts, may also appear beside negatives.

Relativeness

Syntax

Word order

Basic Tullach sentences tend to follow a subject-object-verb word order. Indirect objects normally precede direct objects.

(1a)

aus

she.ERG

ûisca

I.DAT

cnuû

story.ABS

ninula

make.PST

aus ûisca cnuû ninula

she.ERG {I}.DAT story.ABS make.PST

'She wrote the story for me.'

Word order, however, is not all too strict, due to prominent case markings that identify the role of a word in the sentence. The following sentences are grammatically correct and can be translated as the same, though with emphasis on different arguments.

(1b)
Prioritisation of recipient:

ûisca

I.DAT

cnuû

story.ABS

ninula

make.PST

aus

she.ERG

ûisca cnuû ninula aus

{I}.DAT story.ABS make.PST she.ERG

'She wrote the story for me.'

(1c)
Emphasis on action and pronoun dropping:

Ø-al-uc-a-ninula

3.SG.AN-3.SG.INAN-1.SG-EP-make.PST

cnuû

story.ABS

Ø-al-uc-a-ninula cnuû

3.SG.AN-3.SG.INAN-1.SG-EP-make.PST story.ABS

'She wrote the story for me.'

Morphosyntactic alignment

Tullach syntax and verb agreement are largely those of an ergative-absolutive language. That means that the subject of an intransitive verb will take the same case markings as the direct object of a transitive verb. However, this is not a fully accurate representation, as some transitive objects take a third case, in effect acting as tripartite alignment.

Relative clauses

In Tullach, relative clauses are not marked by any relative pronoun, instead with the main verbs of the clause taking on a relative marker and separated by punctuation. The antecedent of the relative cause is reduplicated within the verb as a person marker.

(2)

baga-Ø

plate-SG

g-hrácca-Ø

LOC-secret-SG

g-al-ov-a-ninul-i,

2.SG-3.SG.INAN-1.SG-EP-make.PST-SR

vrang-aî-en

break-CAUS-PST

baga-Ø g-hrácca-Ø g-al-ov-a-ninul-i, vrang-aî-en

plate-SG LOC-secret-SG 2.SG-3.SG.INAN-1.SG-EP-make.PST-SR break-CAUS-PST

'The plate that you secretly made for me broke.'

(3)

3.SG.ERG

Ø-cnuû

ABS-story.SG

u

NEG

panen

already

a-cr-al-uc-ǿbr-en-øt-i,

PVB-1.SG-3.SG.INAN-2.DU-recite-PST-SUBJ-SR

Ø-ov-és-en

3.SG.H-1.SG-give-PST

aû Ø-cnuû u panen a-cr-al-uc-ǿbr-en-øt-i, Ø-ov-és-en

3.SG.ERG ABS-story.SG NEG already PVB-1.SG-3.SG.INAN-2.DU-recite-PST-SUBJ-SR 3.SG.H-1.SG-give-PST

'He gave me a story, which I may not have recited to you two yet.'