Mount Lenthir

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Mount Lenthir
Mount Gamilami, Mount Voilith
Lenthirly.jpg
Mount Lenthir, as seen from the Lenthiri highlands
Highest point
Elevation5,480 m (17,980 ft)
Prominence5,480 m (17,980 ft)
Parent peakBéváse'jérna
ListingHighest peak in Lugida
Ultra-prominent peaks
Coordinates31°33'23"N, 0°27'02"E
Naming
Translation"Gate" (Lithian)
Geography
LocationLenthir Prefecture, Lugida[n 1]
Parent rangeRietic Mountains
Geology
Mountain typeStratovolcano (dormant)
Last eruption10,000 BCE
Climbing
First ascent1881
Normal routeMadam route

Mount Lenthir (Lithian: Grat Lenthir [gɾat̚ lentʰɪɾ]) or alternatively Mount Lam is a dormant stratovolcano comprising the southernmost point of the Rietic Mountains in Lugida. At 5,480 metres (17,980 ft) above sea level, the mountain is both the tallest in Lugida and in the Rietic – about a kilometer more than the second tallest Mount Haiwa at 4,306 m (14,127 ft) – as well as one of the highest points in Soltenna. Its peak is only 40 kilometres (25 mi) apart from the nearest shoreline and lies 100 kilometres (62 mi) southwest of Natlia, facing towards Dori Bay and the Gulf of Sharkunen.

Mount Lenthir's particularly high peak made it snow-capped throughout all seasons and is one of the well-known symbols of Lugida, in particular for its relevance in Lenthiri mythology and culture. Here the highest order Lenthiri deities reside while on Sahar and the mountain serves the role of "the place between the divine and mortal realm", hence its namesake meaning the "gate". It is also the stage to legendary figure Lam, in which he reached the summit of Mount Lenthir, normally feared for its sheer height and cold, to seek divine inspiration "of the greatest order". When descending down through the Lithe River, he brought with him "the knowledge of civilization" and founded a kingdom with it.

Mount Lenthir is a frequent subject of traditional Lugid literature and art overall, where it is depicted as a lighthouse, a watchtower, a hvoir, and so on. To conserve and protect the forests and fauna around the mountain from rapid urbanization, Lenthir National Park, comprising Mount Lenthir, Mount Haiwa, and surrounding areas, was established in 1986, and has become a popular tourist site forming a large part of Lenthir Prefecture's economy.

Etymology

Lenthir derives from the Lithian word meaning "gate" and is the widely known, official name whose best known meaning is "the gate between the divine and mortal realms", based on the mountain's role in Lenthiri mythology, although historical literature don't always refer Mount Lenthir as such. Another interpretation of the Lenthir name is the "gate" between the Amiyant Sea and the open seas (Gulf of Sharkunen) or the gate to Lugida (specifically the Nellia Dynasty). This etymology is mentioned in historical documents dating back to the 4th century CE during the time of the Avite Empire.

Alternative names such as Dinshar "high light" were also used by populations near the mountain and in Lenthiri literature, where the mountain in this context instead serves as a "lighthouse" or "beacon" for ships passing through nearby waters instead of a gate. Lam is the name of the Lenthiri legendary figure associated with Mount Lenthir and is used in Lugid literature as well.

Geography and climate

Standing 5,480 metres (17,980 ft) high, Mount Lenthir is a distinctive feature of the geography of Lugida. The mountain comprises the southernmost portion of the Rietic Mountains, and its summit is located 100 km (62 mi) southwest of Natlia, 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of Dodre, 32 km (20 mi) west of Heukal, 55 km (34 mi) south of Madam, and 70 km (43 mi) southeast of the neighboring Mount Haiwa. The summit of Mount Lenthir serves as a prefectural tripoint between Heukal, Dodre, and Lenthir prefectures. As a National Park, the Mount Lenthir area is under direct control of the central government of Lugida in Natlia, but is commonly considered as part of the latter as the mountain and the prefecture share the name Lenthir and the prefecture comprises most of the mountain's area. Madam, Natlia, and Dodre are popular locations for sightseeing of the mountain; during clear skies, Mount Lenthir is visible from as far as Dalshabet, 200 km (120 mi) west of the summit.

Climate of Mount Lenthir region is dominated by a humid subtropical climate with temperatures near the summit averaging around −6.9 °C (19.6 °F). Its wide permanent ice cap near the summit, shaped by coastal wind, feeds 14 glaciers, which in turn feed the Lithe, Halon, and (river) rivers. Lithe River and its watershed provides inundation for a substantial portion of agriculture in Lugida, comprising around 24% of Lugida's arable lands, extending (some distance) from Wilie to Deshan before ultimately reaching its estuary in Kitlimis. Mount Lenthir area mostly falls above the tree line which lies around altitudes between 2,300 m (7,500 ft) and 2,800 m (9,200 ft). At these areas, grass and rocks dominate the landscape, and vegetation is otherwise scarce.

Climate data

Lugid Geospatial Survey (LGS) began recording monthly temperatures of the area in 1971, upon installing a weather station in the Madam Route Base Camp, at an elevation of 3,632 m (11,916 ft) above sea level. Due to harsh climates of the Lenthiri ice caps, LGS didn't install a weather station in that area. An eight-men team of students from the Bet-Halon Institute of Technology reached the summit to measure the climate of the area, in which a temperature of −28 °C (−18 °F) was recorded – the lowest temperature ever recorded in Mount Lenthir and even Lugida. A new, solar-powered weather station at an altitude of 4,531 m (14,865 ft) was installed in 2006 after funding by Pairo Society. It recorded average temperatures of −9.5 °C (14.9 °F), an average humidity of 52 percent, and wind speeds reaching 14.1 m/s (51 km/h; 32 mph).

Climate data for Madam Route Base Camp
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 3.7
(38.7)
4.2
(39.6)
5.6
(42.1)
7.7
(45.9)
11.9
(53.4)
16.4
(61.5)
20.1
(68.2)
21.0
(69.8)
19.5
(67.1)
16.8
(62.2)
12.1
(53.8)
6.3
(43.3)
21.0
(69.8)
Average high °C (°F) −2.2
(28)
−2.2
(28)
1.8
(35.2)
4.1
(39.4)
7.6
(45.7)
9.8
(49.6)
11.1
(52)
12.4
(54.3)
10.7
(51.3)
7.3
(45.1)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.9
(30.4)
5.2
(41.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−5.0
(23)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.6
(34.9)
4.3
(39.7)
6.1
(43)
7.5
(45.5)
8.5
(47.3)
6.8
(44.2)
3.0
(37.4)
−1.5
(29.3)
−4.4
(24.1)
1.6
(34.9)
Average low °C (°F) −8.0
(17.6)
−8.2
(17.2)
−5.9
(21.4)
−1.9
(28.6)
0.4
(32.7)
2.2
(36)
3.5
(38.3)
4.5
(40.1)
3.6
(38.5)
0.1
(32.2)
−4.5
(23.9)
−7.2
(19)
−1.8
(28.8)
Record low °C (°F) −13
(9)
−13.9
(7)
−12.9
(8.8)
−10.1
(13.8)
−8.8
(16.2)
−7.3
(18.9)
−6.4
(20.5)
−5.8
(21.6)
−6.9
(19.6)
−8.2
(17.2)
−9.6
(14.7)
−11.7
(10.9)
−13.9
(7)
Source: Lugid Geospatial Survey, as of 2016

Geology

Mount Lenthir was formed during the Rietic orogeny 60 million years ago. (Central Soltennan) Plate at the time already collided with the (West Soltennan) Plate to form the Darkine, in which the former collided northwestwards in a rapid drift against the (West Soltennan) Plate that was moving eastwards. Relative eastward motion of the (West Soltennan) Plate increased and both tectonic plates eventually drifted eastwards. In the Rietic orogeny, Rietic Plate collided northwestwards with the (Central Soltennan) Plate, closing the Oculus Sea and leading to the obduction of oceanic ophiolite onto the Rietic Plate, and forming a convergent boundary which grew to become the Rietic Mountains as well as forming the Lake Soltenna basin. Unlike the Darkine orogeny, the tectonic plates collide at a much slower motion and thus giving mountains of the Rietic an average height 2,200 metres (7,200 ft). Most of the oceanic crust of the Rietic Plate was subducted.

The orogeny induced volcanic activity in the region. Most of the Rietic Mountains' highest mountains are formed through volcanism. Included is Mount Lenthir, that was highly active during Late Pleistocene, leading to its high elevation. Similar volcanisms leading to high elevation is found in the neighboring Mount Haiwa and the still-active Mount Nidarum. After its last geologically recorded eruption in 10,000 BCE, Mount Lenthir is currently dormant and show no signs indicative of volcanism, but is not classified as an extinct volcano.

History

Significance

Lenthiri mythology

In Lenthiri mythology, Mount Lenthir's area is inhabited by deities, making the mountain as their watchtower to the region while serving as the guardians of the gate to the divine realm. It described a legendary priest under the name Gamilami that climbed the mountain after the deities "called" the Lenthirites in the region to climb the mountain and honor the deities. No gift was promised, and thus most Lenthirites dismissed the call; some Lenthirite priests answered the "call" by constructing a temple described to be located near modern-day Madam. He decided to climb the mountain and reach the summits where he meditated for few hours. A deity is described to have came to him with the gift, called "the knowledge of civilization", then used by Gamilami to found a kingdom that is believed to be located in modern-day Deshan.

Adventuring

National Park

See also

Notes

  1. Mount Lenthir region, which comprises parts of the Lenthir National Park, is located mostly in Lenthir Prefecture and is labeled so, as most contemporary sources consider the area as being primarily part of the Lenthir Prefecture. The mountain's summit is a tripoint between Lenthir, Dodre, and Heukal prefectures, but is under control of the central government of Lugida as the area is a national park.